Muscle torques and power output developed on a cycle ergometer sh

Muscle torques and power output developed on a cycle ergometer showed significant positive correlations with the mesomorphic component while significant selleck CHIR99021 negative ones with ectomorphy. Acknowledgments The study was supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Grant No. AWF – Ds.-134).
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basic and evoked blood flow in the skin microcirculation of the hand, one day and ten days after a series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions, in healthy individuals. The study group included 32 volunteers �C 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of cryotherapy in a cryogenic chamber. The variables were recorded before the series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions (first measurement), one day after the last session (second measurement) and ten days later (third measurement).

Rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, reaction to temperature and arterio�Cvenous reflex index were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry. The values recorded for rest flow, a post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, a reaction to temperature and arterio �C venous reflex index were significantly higher both in the second and third measurement compared to the initial one. Differences were recorded both in men and women. The values of frequency in the range of 0,01 Hz to 2 Hz (heart frequency dependent) were significantly lower after whole-body cryostimulation in both men and women. In the range of myogenic frequency significantly higher values were recorded in the second and third measurement compared to the first one.

Recorded data suggest improved response of the cutaneous microcirculation to applied stimuli in both women and men. Positive effects of cryostimulation persist in the tested group for 10 consecutive days. Keywords: cryotherapy, skin blood flow, rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, arterio�Cvenous reflex index Introduction Whole body cryotherapy (WBCT) is more and more frequently used to complete pharmacotherapy and kinesiotherapy that are applied in rheumatologic and neurological diseases as well as in therapy of injuries of the locomotor system or in overload syndromes. It is also a modern, effective and safe procedure for athletes�� recovery (Hubbard et al., 2004).

The procedure of whole body cryostimulation is based on exposure of the organism to extremely low temperature (?110��C to ?160��C) for a very short period (1 �C 3 minutes) without provoking hypothermia or congelation (Westerlund et al., 2003). Cryogenic temperatures trigger physiological thermoregulation mechanisms, which results Cilengitide in analgesic (Long et al., 2005; Brandner et al., 1996; Ingersoll et al., 1991), anti-inflammatory (Banfi et al., 2010; Knight, 1995), anti-oedematic (Meeusun et al., 1998) and anti-oxidative effects (Akhalaya et al., 2006; Dugue et al., 2005) and stimulate the immune system (Lubkowska et al., 2010b).

Recently, the spa has helped to treat respiratory system diseases

Recently, the spa has helped to treat respiratory system diseases, such as bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic sinusitis and pneumoconiosis (Report on the state of the environment of Lower Silesia, 1998�C2003). The difference in altitude above sea level between Polkowice (150 m) and Jedlina Zdroj (500 m) is relatively small and according to published studies (Weitz et al., 2002), should not have a significant influence on the development of the respiratory system. Lung-Function Tests Evaluation of lung function was performed using a commercial spirometer (Flowscreen, Jaeger). The following respiratory parameters were chosen for analysis: vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), Tiffeneau-index (FEV1%VC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow rate at 50% of FVC (MEF50) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV).

The spirometric testing was conducted only in the sitting position. Each subject was asked to perform three satisfactory blows, defined as FVC and FEV1 agreeing within 5%, FEV1 extrapolation volume less than 100 ml or 5% of FVC, less than 50 ml expired in the final 2 s, and forced expiratory time exceeding 3 s. The best of the three blows by each child was chosen by the spirometer program, according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) modified for children (American Thoracic Society, 1978; American Thoracic Society, 1996). Volume and gas calibrations were performed before each test with a 1-L syringe (3% variability was acceptable), and the results were corrected to BTPS conditions.

The recommended reference values of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) gave predictions for lung variables in children (Quanjer et al., 1993; Quanjer et al., 1995). A trained person performed the spirometric testing in all subjects. Motor Abilities Tests Motor abilities were measured with selected European Personal Fitness Tests in the following order: plate tapping test, sit and reach, standing broad jump, handgrip, and shuttle run (Eurofit 1993). All tests were performed in a gym. A non-slip surface and sport shoes were used for the running and jumping tests. The participants rested between each test. The battery of tests included the following: -Plate tapping test, which measured the speed of upper limb movements.

Participants were asked to pass, as quickly and as many times as possible, a plastic disc held by one hand over to the other, with the disc touching the flat surface of a table. -Sit-and-reach test, which measured flexibility and included reaching as far as possible from a sitting position. -Standing broad jump test, which measured explosive strength by jumping for a distance from Batimastat a standing start. -Handgrip test to measure static strength. This was achieved by squeezing a calibrated hydraulic hand dynamometer (Jamar) as forcefully as possible with the dominant hand.

However, there is no published study concerning this matter

However, there is no published study concerning this matter Tofacitinib baldness in classical ballet dancers. For this reason, we decided to examine whether adding a supplementary low intensity aerobic training program to regular dance practice would improve VO2max and psychomotor performance in classical ballet dancers. Material and Methods Subjects Six professional female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. All the subjects started dancing at 9 years of age and were subjected to regular dance training for at least 12 years. During their work as members of the corps de ballet (including at least two years immediately preceding the study) they danced on the average about 6 times (a total of 24 h) per week. They had not been involved in other forms of regular physical activity.

After being informed about the purpose of the study, all the subjects signed a written consent to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland. All the volunteers were clinically healthy and in good nutritional status, and their habitual diet was assessed with the use of a questionnaire. The dancers recorded their food intake over a 3-day period just before the commencement of exercise tests, and the daily records were analyzed for energy and macronutrients intake using a computer program Dietus (B.U.I. InFit 1995, Poland). Basic anthropometric characteristics of the subjects are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Basic anthropometric characteristics of the studied subjects Study design The experimental protocol consisted of anthropometric measurements, a psychomotor performance test and graded exercise test for the evaluation of VO2max and anaerobic threshold (AT). All anthropometric measurements, the psychomotor performance test and exercise test were performed both prior to the beginning of aerobic training (pre-T) and following a 6-week supplementary aerobic training (post�CT). Body composition was assessed using bio-electrical impedance (Tanita body composition analyzer TBF-300). All subjects cycled on a 828 Monark (Sweden) ergometer with intensity increasing by 30 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. Minute ventilation (Ve) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were analyzed continuously (breath-by-breath) for 1 min at rest and at the third minute of each workload using standard technique of open-circuit spirometry (Yeager).

Heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a PE 3000 Sport Tester (Polar Electro, Finland). To determine the anaerobic threshold, fingertip capillary blood samples for lactate concentration assessment were taken at rest, at the third minute of each workload, and at the fifth minute of Dacomitinib post-exercise recovery. Blood lactate concentration was measured by the standard enzymatic method using commercial kits (Boehringer-Mannheim, Germany) and a model UV-1201 UV/VIS Shimadzu spectrophotometer.

, 2008) However, these studies used only single-trial

, 2008). However, these studies used only single-trial MG132 proteasome sprint protocols, neglecting to address the repeated-effort sprint requirements specific to the nature of many field and court sports. The relationship between the force-generating capacity of muscles and repeated-sprint ability has received little attention (Kin-??ler et al., 2008). Amputee soccer is gaining popularity throughout the world and it represents a game that places demand on anaerobic performance, muscular strength, sprint performance, balance and locomotor capacity. In amputee soccer, matches are played between teams of seven players using bilateral crutches. Wearing a prosthetic device is not allowed during match play (Yaz?c?oglu et al., 2007a). The match is played in two equal periods of 25 minutes each.

Play may be suspended for ��time-outs�� of one per team per half which must not exceed one minute. The half time interval must not exceed 10 minutes (Yaz?c?oglu et al., 2007b). These rules emphasize the importance of body composition, anaerobic performance and speed of action, three different variables that have not been hitherto studied within this frame. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship composition, anaerobic performance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Methods Subjects Fifteen male amputee soccer players with unilateral below-knee amputation participated in this study voluntarily. The causes of amputation were gun shot in 13 subjects, traffic accident in one subject and congenital malformation in one subject.

Their mean age, height, body mass and body fat were 25.5 ��5.8 yrs, 169.8 �� 5.5 cm, 66.5 �� 10.2 kg and 10.1 �� 3.6 %, respectively. The study group consisted of active football players of the amputee football team and all the players were the members of the same team competing in Amputee Super League and trained for two hours five days per week. Subjects�� mean training experience was 3.3 �� 2.9 yrs. Subjects were informed about the possible risks and benefits of the study and gave informed consent to participate in this study. Procedures Anthropometric Measurements The body height of the soccer players was measured by a stadiometer with an accuracy of �� 1 cm (SECA, Germany), and an electronic scale (SECA, Germany) with an accuracy of �� 0.1 kg was used to measure body mass.

Skinfold thickness was measured with a Holtain skinfold caliper (Hotain, UK) which applied a pressure Carfilzomib of 10 g/mm2 with an accuracy of �� 2 mm. Gulick anthropometric tape (Holtain, UK) with an accuracy of �� 1 mm was used to measure the circumference of extremities. Diametric measurements were determined by Harpenden calipers (Holtain, UK) with an accuracy of �� 1 mm. The soccer players�� somatotypes were then calculated using the Heath-Carter formula (1990) and the percentage of body fat was determined by the Jackson and Pollock formula (1978).

The subjects were fitted with a chest HR transmitter and wrist mo

The subjects were fitted with a chest HR transmitter and wrist monitor recorder. HR was recorded, from the beginning of the session, using individual Polar RS400 (Polar? Vantage selleck chemicals Vorinostat NV, Polar Electro Oy, Finland), and subsequently exported and analyzed using the Polar Pro-Trainer? software program (Polar Electro Oy, Finland). The subjects could not see their HR measurements during the experimental trial, because it could influence their perceived effort on the Borg and OMNI RPE scales. For this reason, a sticker was placed on each HR monitor. The experimental trial was divided into four stages: a warm-up (10 minutes in a seated position, with a cadence of 90�C100 RPM (revolutions per minute)), a main phase (35 minutes, where the subjects alternated between normal seated positions and seated and standing climb cycling, between 60�C80 RPM in climb techniques and between 80 �C 110 RPM in normal seated cycling).

Then, a cool down (5 minutes, with a cadence of 80�C100 RPM) in a seated position and, finally, stretching exercises, of the principal muscles used in the session off cycling. During the experimental trial, HR was recorded every 5 s. The participants were instructed to follow the directions of a qualified indoor cycling instructor, which included recommended frequencies of pedalling (RPM) in each phase of the session and recommended cycle resistance. The instructor provided feedback to help the subjects to regulate their intensity. Although the resistance of the cycle could be freely changed by the participants during the session, the study subjects had to follow the instructions about the resistance and the RPM indicated by the instructor.

The Borg 6�C20 RPE and the OMNI 0�C10 scales were used to assess perceived exertion. The RPE is a 15-point single-item scale ranging from 6 to 20, with anchors ranging from 6 ��No exertion�� to 20 ��Maximum exertion��. The OMNI 0�C10 scale has a category rating format that contains both pictorial and verbal descriptors positioned along a comparatively narrow numerical response range, 0�C10. Each pictorial descriptor is consistent with its corresponding verbal descriptor, from 0 ��Extremely easy�� to 10 ��Extremely hard��. Both RPE scales were positioned within sight in the indoor cycling room. The subjects were instructed to give an overall perception about how hard the exercise felt according to both RPE scales every five minutes, from the start to the end of the indoor cycling session.

These values were written on a record sheet which the subjects had on their handlebars. Before the measurements, subjects were asked to read instructions on how to use these scales. A familiarization period of two weeks (and a minimum of 3 sessions per week) prior Anacetrapib to the experimental trial was carried out to accustom the participants with the Borg and the OMNI RPE scales. The first session consisted of familiarization to the RPE scales.

The values are strikingly

The values are strikingly selleck chemical Ganetespib similar to the 14.1, 9.3, 6.9 and 4.5 repetitions predicted in the present study when using loads equivalent to 66.7, 78.9, 85.0 and 91.0% 1-RMECC (or 110, 130, 140, and 150% 1-RM). It is therefore possible that researchers may start to use the repetition-load schemes presented here to investigate the kinematic and kinetic as well as metabolic responses to the eccentric-only bench press exercise using supra-maximal loads. For example, Ratamess et al. (2009) recommended that intermediate and advanced individuals perform resistance training exercises within a loading range from 1- to 12-RM, with an eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1- to 6-RM). For the eccentric-only bench, these loads would correspond to a range between 164.8% and 118.7% 1-RM (100% to 72% 1-RMECC), with loads between 164.

8% and 143.9% 1- RM (100% to 87% 1-RMECC) employed for the heavier periods of the training program. These loads exceed those tested in the present study, which raises potential safety issues. Previous researchers had subjects perform an eccentric-only bench press with a load equivalent to 150% 1-RM (Murphy et al., 1994). However, these authors had subjects perform only a single repetition and they limited the range of motion to approximately 30o of elbow flexion to limit the potential for injury. Furthermore, the subjects performed the movement in a Smith machine, removing the requirement for spotters. Using the methodology of the present study, the requirement for spotters may preclude the use of loads greater than 130% 1-RM.

Caution may be required when using the repetition-load scheme developed in the present study. The accuracy of the scheme is predicated on the assumption that the relationship between the repetitions and load is linear. Although the scheme presented by Baechle et al. (2008) is also linear, there is some evidence that repetition-load schemes for the bench press performed utilizing the SSC may be curvilinear (LeSuer et al., 1997). It is possible that reflexive inhibition (Webber and Kriellaars, 1997) may alter the repetition load scheme proposed here. Furthermore, the scheme is likely to be accurate only for subjects possessing similar strength levels to those used in the present study and performing the exercise using free-weights as opposed to in a machine (Hoeger et al., 1990).

However, the scheme presented provides an appropriate starting point to investigate the kinematic, kinetic and metabolic responses to eccentric-only bench press workouts, although the following issues need to be considered. Firstly, multiple Anacetrapib sets of resistance exercises have been recommended in the development of factors such as muscular strength and hypertrophy (Ratamess et al., 2009), and it remains to be established how the repetition-load scheme is affected by the completion of multiple sets. Similarly, inter-set rest periods of 1�C3 minutes have been recommended (Ratamess et al.