e., ERα and ERβ, both of which are receptors for oestradiol. Recent studies have
indicated that ERα expression is an SCH772984 order unfavourable prognostic indicator in ESCC (33). The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize these five molecular mechanisms of disease progression, which are related to prognosis. Methods Study protocol We followed the Preferred Reporting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA guidelines where possible in performing our systematic review (34). We performed a systematic search through MEDLINE (from 1950), PubMed (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1949), Current Contents Connect (from 1998), Cochrane library, Google scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science to May 2013. The search terms included “esophageal cancer”, “SOX2, OCT4, MET, IGF and oestrogen”, which
were searched as text word and as exploded medical subject headings where possible. No language restrictions were used in either the search or study selection. The reference lists of relevant articles were also searched for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical appropriate studies. A search for unpublished literature was not performed. Study selection We included studies that met the following inclusion criteria: Studies identifying the population of patients with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical esophageal cancer; Studies dealing with the association between SOX2, OCT4, MET, insulin like growth factor receptor and oestrogen with esophageal cancer. Data extraction We performed the data extraction using a standardized data
extraction form, collecting information on the publication year, study design, number of cases, total sample size, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical population type, country, continent, mean age and clinical data. The event rate and confidence intervals were calculated. Statistical analysis Pooled event rate and 95% confidence intervals were using a random effects model (35). We tested heterogeneity with Cochran’s Q statistic, with P<0.10 indicating heterogeneity, and quantified the degree of heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, which represents the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical percentage of the total variability across studies which is due to heterogeneity. I2 values of 25%, 50% and 75% corresponded to low, moderate and high degrees of ADP ribosylation factor heterogeneity respectively (36). The quantified publication bias using the Egger’s regression model (37), with the effect of bias assessed using the fail-safe number method. The fail-safe number was the number of studies that we would need to have missed for our observed result to be nullified to statistical non-significance at the P<0.05 level. Publication bias is generally regarded as a concern if the fail-safe number is less than 5n+10, with n being the number of studies included in the meta-analysis (38). All analyses were performed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis (version 2.0). Results The original search strategy 3,584 retrieved studies (Figure 1). The abstracts were reviewed and articles were selected for full-text evaluation.