Endobiliary biopsy specimens (n = 13), percutaneous liver biopsy specimens (n = 3), and surgically-resected liver specimens (n = 3) were obtained from 16 patients. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin–eosin (HE) and immunostained using IgG4 antibodies (The Binding Site, Birmingham, UK) with the avidin–biotin–peroxidase complex. The infiltration High Content Screening of IgG4-positive plasma cells was evaluated by counting the number of positive plasma cells in the four high-power fields (HPF; HE, original magnification ×400) and dividing the value by 4. The presence of ≥10 IgG4-positive cells per HPF was classified as significant infiltration. As disease controls, two prototypes
of benign and malignant biliary strictures, PSC and CCC, were compared with ISC to confirm the specificity of DNA Damage inhibitor IgG4-positive cells in histology. The resected liver specimens from patients with classic PSC and periductal infiltrating-type hilar CCC were immunostained for IgG4. Thirteen patients with classic PSC (males, n = 8; median age: 37years, range: 26–54 years), who were diagnosed according to the typical cholangiographic findings and showed progressive clinical course (accompanying ulcerative colitis in seven patients) resulting in liver failure and liver transplantation,6
and 13 patients with hilar CCC (males, n = 9; median age: 61 years, range: 57–70), who were histologically confirmed, were selected retrospectively. Serum IgG and IgG4 levels were measured in another 25 patients with hilar CCC (males, n = 14; median age: 68 years, range: 39–86) to evaluate the role in differential diagnosis. The clinical profiles selleck compound of 16 patients with ISC are summarized in Table 1. Of the 16 patients with ISC, 15 were male, and the mean age was 62.9 years (range: 44–80). Initial presentations included painless jaundice (n = 9, combined weight loss in two patients) and abdominal pain (n = 1). The remaining
six patients had mild abdominal discomfort without biliary pain or fever. Newly-onset diabetes mellitus was present in two patients. Neither of these patients was previously diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. The extent of bile duct involvement upon cholangiogram was as follows: both hilar and intrahepatic strictures (n = 13, including three patients with additional distal CBD strictures), hilar and distal CBD strictures (n = 1), and intrahepatic strictures alone (n = 2). The multifocal biliary tree involvement was defined when two or more different segmental branches were involved with intervening normal-looking branches. This was observed in 14 patients (Fig. 1). Marked concentric bile duct thickening with a smooth, luminal surface and preserved luminal patency was observed at the hilum in 13 patients, resembling a doughnut (Fig. 2). These thickened bile duct walls showed variable enhancement patterns.