Ag43/Fcε3, as a protein vaccine, produced neutralizing autoantibo

Ag43/Fcε3, as a protein vaccine, produced neutralizing autoantibodies to murine IgE, induced significant anti-asthma effects, and regulated IgE and T helper cytokines in a murine asthma model. Data show that Ag43/Fcε3 chimeric protein is a potential model vaccine for asthma treatment, and that the Ag43 system may be an effective tool for novel vaccine preparation to break immune tolerance to other self-molecules. “
“Infection with Listeria induces a dominant shift to the Th1

immune response and inhibits the Th2 response. Papain is frequently utilized in animal models MAPK Inhibitor Library chemical structure of allergies. Papain administration induces chemotaxis of basophils to regional lymph nodes (LNs) and production of interleukin (IL)-4 by basophils, resulting in a Th2-dominant status and increased IgE production in LNs. In this model, production of immunoglobulin (Ig) E by LN cells is primarily

controlled by IL-4 produced by basophils. Based on this model, it was postulated that Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection suppresses IgE production by LN cells. Therefore, the effects of Lm infection on a papain-induced mouse model of allergies were investigated. Following s.c. injection of papain, basophils transiently migrated to draining LNs because of the effects of chemokine (C–C) motif ligand (CCL) 24 and secreted IL-4, inducing see more a Th2 response. Lm infection blocked recruitment of basophils into the popliteal LNs by inhibiting CCL24 production. Papain-induced class switch Cepharanthine recombination (CSR) to IgE is inhibited by Lm infection, whereas CSR to IgG1 is not affected by the same treatment. Therefore, the CSR of IgG1 to IgE is basophil-dependent, whereas the CSR of IgM to IgG1 is basophil-independent. Hence, Lm infection suppresses CSR to IgE without affecting CSR to IgG1. “
“The DNA damage response (DDR) alerts the immune system to the danger posed by DNA damage through the induction of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, chemokines, and ligands for activating immune receptors such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), NKG2D, and DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1). Here we provide evidence that OVA257–264-pulsed

fibroblasts gain the ability to activate naïve OT-I CD8+ T cells in response to DNA damage. The ability of fibroblasts to activate OT-I CD8+ T cells depended on the upregulation of ICAM-1 on fibroblasts and DNAM-1 expression of CD8+ T cells. OVA257–264-pulsed fibroblasts were able to induce a protective T-cell response against B16-OVA cells in a DDR-dependent manner. Hence, the DDR may alert the immune system to the presence of potentially dangerous cells by upregulating the expression of ligands that can induce the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. “
“Immunoglobulins (Igs) play important immunomodulatory effects on allergic asthma. Among these, IgG has been reported to regulate allergic inflammation in previous studies about immunotherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

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