Previous studies have demonstrated that the impairment is accompanied by not only regional brain abnormalities but also changes in neuronal connectivity between anatomically distinct brain regions. Specifically, using neurophysiological and neuroimaging
techniques as well as advanced graph theory-based computational approaches, several recent studies have suggested that AD patients have disruptive neuronal integrity in large-scale structural and functional brain Systems Underlying high-level AMG510 chemical structure cognition, as demonstrated by a loss of small-world network characteristics. Small world is an attractive model for the description of complex brain networks because it can Support both segregated and integrated information processing.
The altered small-world organization thus reflects aberrant neuronal connectivity in the AD brain that is most likely to explain cognitive deficits caused by this disease. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in the brain network research on AD, focusing mainly on the large-scale structural and functional descriptions. I Me literature reviewed here Suggests that AD patients are associated with integrative abnormalities in the distributed neuronal networks, which could provide new insights into the PX-478 molecular weight disease mechanism in AD and help LIS to uncover an imaging-based biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.”
“There is increasing evidence that glial cells, in particular astrocytes, interact dynamically with
neurons. The well-known anatomofunctional organization of neurons in the barrel cortex offers a Suitable and promising model to Study such neuroglial interaction. This review summarizes and discusses recent in vitro as well as in vivo works demonstrating that astrocytes receive, integrate, and respond to neuronal signals. In addition, they are active elements of brain metabolism and exhibit a certain degree of plasticity that affects neuronal activity. Altogether these findings indicate that the barrel cortex presents glial compartments overlapping most and interacting with neuronal compartments and that these properties help define barrels as functional and independent units. Finally, this review outlines how the use of the barrel cortex as a model might in the future help to address important questions related to dynamic neuroglia interaction.”
“Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles with multiple metabolic functions, but their precise role in the maintenance of tissues is not well understood. All diseases caused by partial or complete peroxisome dysfunction are characterized by a variety of neurological abnormalities, underscoring the importance of peroxisomes in nervous tissue. The interrelationship between metabolic abnormalities, histological changes, and clinical signs in these peroxisomal diseases has not yet been clarified.