Results showed that the particle size of all the micelles
was approximately 25-30 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency was >90%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis demonstrated that Oct facilitates the uptake of micelles in SSTR overexpressed breast cancer MCF-7 cells while FG 4592 free Oct inhibited cellular uptake of Oct-modified micelles, revealing the mechanism of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Breast cancer stem cells (side population cells, SP cells) were sorted from MCF-7 cells and identified with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype. M-SAL was capable of decreasing the proportion of SP cells, and its suppression was more potent in SP cells than that in cancer cells. As compared to PTX-loaded micelles (M-PTX), the inhibition of Oct-M-PTX against MCF-7 cells was stronger while
such effect significantly increased when applying Oct-M-PTX in combination with M-SAL In the MCF-7 xenografts, the combination therapy with Oct-M-PTX plus M-SAL produced the strongest antitumor efficacy, in accord with the combination treatment in vitro. Compared with free SAL, M-SAL was found to be more effective in suppressing breast cancer stem cells in vivo. Thus, this combination therapy may provide a strategy to improve treatment of breast cancers for eradication of breast cancer cells together with breast cancer see more stern cells. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: www.selleckchem.com/products/fg-4592.html Functions of the gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) include an important role in the regulation of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose homeostasis, and postmeal satiety. Postprandial
CCK responses are significantly blunted in type 2 diabetic patients by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that hyperinsulinemia and lipid infusion influence circulating levels of biologically active CCK.\n\nMethods: Eleven healthy subjects were studied in a cross-over design after 10-h overnight fasts, using euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps for 443 min, with an additional infusion of lipid-heparin (1.25 ml.min(-1)) or saline (1.25 ml.min(-1)) for the last 300 min after constant plasma glucose levels were achieved.\n\nResults: Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemia resulted in a sustained, up to 5-fold increase of plasma CCK (P < 0.001). When adding lipid infusion instead of saline, CCK concentrations rapidly declined and returned to baseline levels (CCK(300) (min) 1.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.3 pmol/liter, P < 0.001). Partial intraclass correlation showed an independent correlation of plasma CCK with free fatty acids (r(ic) = -0.377, P < 0.001) but not with serum insulin (r(ic) = 0.077, P = 0.32). Whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased in lipid-exposed subjects (M value 7.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.9 mg.kg.min(-1), P = 0.017) but was not independently correlated with CCK (r(ic) = 0.040, P = 0.61).