05 were considered significant (* = p < 0 05) The erythroid diff

05 were considered significant (* = p < 0.05). The erythroid differentiation of

K562 cells was investigated after the treatment with six Panobinostat purchase psoralens and five angelicins, whose structures are described in Fig. 1. K652 cells were irradiated with two UV-A doses (1 and 2 J/cm2) and then erythroid differentiation was measured by benzidine test after 5, 6 and 7 days from irradiation. At the same time, cellular viability was evaluated by MTT, obtaining evidences suggesting antiproliferative effects and phototoxicity. Different concentrations of compounds were employed because of their different phototoxic effects; accordingly, concentrations were chosen to maximize the erythroid effect without extensive reduction of cell viability. Moreover, considering the fact that some angelicins were powerful γ-globin inducers without irradiation [26], the same tests were performed with higher concentration check details of furocumarins in the absence of irradiation. With the exception of 4,6,4′-trimethylangelicin (4,6,4′-TMA) [26], without irradiation all furocoumarins, when administered at 50 μM, showed a very low capability

of causing an increase of benzidine positive cells (lower than 10%) with respect to control (data not shown). On the contrary, after irradiation all tested molecules were able to induce a clear increase of benzidine positive cells, as displayed in Table 1. Table 1 reports the Levetiracetam percentages of benzidine positive cells and cellular viability after 6 days after irradiation at the highest concentration for each compound. In general, psoralens induced a higher proportion of erythroid differentiating cells (38.4–78.1%) in comparison to angelicins (24.3–58.7%), and these data confirmed the ones obtained with other furocoumarins [7]. Furthermore, the

induction of erythroid differentiation was dependent on the UV-A dose with the exception of some cases in which the antiproliferative effect was a major effect (see for example 5,5′-dimethylpsoralen or 4,6,4′-TMA or 4,4′,5′-trimethylangelicin). In the panel A of Fig. 2, the concentration-dependent increase of the ratio of benzidine positive cells was illustrated for some compounds as examples. Moreover, the panel B of Fig. 2 shows representative pictures of treated cells after benzidine staining: cells irradiated in the presence of 4′,5′-dimethylpsoralen (4′,5′-DMP) clearly were blue-colored1 and became larger with respect to control (this effect is not unusual within already reported inducers of erythroid differentiation, such as cytosine arabinoside [10]). Further experiments were carried out to determine whether the induced erythroid differentiation was reversible. To this aim, 6 days after irradiation (1 J/cm2), K562 cells were incubated for additional 4 days with fresh medium, and the benzidine test was performed at this point.

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