CKB interacts with HCV NS4A protein and forms a complex with NS3-

CKB interacts with HCV NS4A protein and forms a complex with NS3-4A, which possesses multiple enzyme activities. CKB upregulates both NS3-4A-mediated

unwinding of RNA and DNA in vitro and replicase activity in permeabilized HCV replicating cells. Our results support a model in which recruitment of CKB to the HCV RC compartment, which has high and fluctuating energy demands, through its interaction with NS4A is important for efficient replication of the viral genome. The CKB-NS4A association is a potential target for the development of a new type of antiviral therapeutic strategy.”
“Systemic administration of the nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroglycerin (NTG) triggers a delayed attack without aura in many migraineurs, but not in healthy volunteers. In rats, 4 h after the buy LOXO-101 systemic

administration of NTG (10 mg/kg bw, s.c.), the neurons of the caudal trigeminal nucleus (TNC) are activated and the expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the same area is increased suggesting a self-amplifying process in the trigeminal system, which seems to be crucial in migraine pathogenesis. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its analogues may exert modulatory effects in many neuropathological conditions, probably via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism. Since NMDA receptors play a crucial role in trigeminal pain processing, the aim of our experiments was to Combretastatin A4 mw compare the effects Of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) combined with probenecid (PROB) or with 2-(2-N,N-dimethyiaminoethylamine-1-carbonyl)-1H-quinolin-4-one hydrochloride alone, a newly synthetized KYNA derivative, on the NTG-induced nNOS expression in the rat TNC. Pretreatment with L-KYN (300 mg/kg bw, i.p.) together with PROB (200 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and KYNA derivative (300 mg/kg bw, i.p.) attenuated the NTG-induced nNOS expression in the rat TNC. Our data suggest that the stimulating effect of NTG, and thus of NO, on the expression of nNOS might be modulated by increasing

the KYNA level in the brain, probably through the NMDA receptors. These data could help promote a better understanding of the pathogenesis Methisazone of headaches and the action of antimigraine drugs. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses are emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses that cause encephalitis in humans, with fatality rates of up to 75%. We designed a new high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for inhibitors of infection based on envelope glycoprotein pseudotypes. The assay simulates multicycle replication and thus identifies inhibitors that target several stages of the viral life cycle, but it still can be carried out under biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) conditions. These features permit a screen for antivirals for emerging viruses and select agents that otherwise would require BSL-4 HTS facilities.

Within 8 weeks of corticosteroid administration, a diagnosis of C

Within 8 weeks of corticosteroid administration, a diagnosis of CIPD was made for 14 (10.1%) of 139 episodes in 135 patients with a non-CNS-SLE flare. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified positive Q(albumin) (CSF/serum albumin ratio; an indicator of blood-brain barrier [BBB] damage) (odds ratio [OR], 33.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.64-304; p = 0.002) and low serum levels of complements (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; p = 0.047) as independent risk factors for CIPDs. Positive Qalbumin was detected in 45% (5 of 11) of episodes in which CIPDs developed. Compared with episodes in which no psychiatric events occurred, a higher level

of Qalbumin this website was found in episodes in which CIPDs developed, and an even higher level was noted in episodes with active CNS-SLE (Jonckheere-Terpstra test, p<0.001). Although no causal links have been proven, the results from the present study raise the possibility that BBB damage may be associated with SLE- and corticosteroid-induced behavioral changes. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A crucial question in cognitive science is how linguistic and visual information are integrated. Previous research has shown that eye movements to objects in the visual environment are locked to linguistic input. More surprisingly, listeners fixate on now-empty regions that

had previously been occupied by relevant

objects. This ‘looking at nothing’ phenomenon has been Selleck GSK621 linked to the claim that the visual system constructs sparse representations of the external world and relies on saccades and fixations to extract information in a just-in-time manner. Our model provides a different explanation: based on recent work in visual Depsipeptide mw cognition and memory, it assumes that the visual system creates and stores detailed internal memory representations, and that looking at nothing facilitates retrieval of those representations.”
“Objectives. To evaluate whether social contacts, support, and social strain/conflict are related to executive function and memory abilities in middle-age and older adults.

Methods. Longitudinal data on social contacts, support, and strain/conflict were examined in relation to executive function and memory at ages 35-85 years using data from the national Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Age-related differences in patterns of association were also examined.

Results. Regression analyses, controlling for age, sex, race, education, chronic health conditions, and health behaviors, revealed significant positive associations between histories of greater social contacts and support and both executive function and episodic memory, whereas declines in social contacts were negatively associated with both outcomes.

This

evolving dynamical schema is key to extending our un

This

evolving dynamical schema is key to extending our understanding of memory processes.”
“Genomic DNA synthesis is a universally conserved process for all herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV UL70 is believed to encode the primase of the DNA replication machinery, a function which requires localization in the nucleus, the site of viral DNA synthesis. No host factors that interact with UL70 have been reported. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that UL70 specifically interacts with Snapin, a human protein that is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm and is associated with cellular vesicles. The interaction between UL70 and Snapin was identified in both the two-hybrid screen in yeast and coimmunoprecipitation in human cells. The nuclear import of UL70 was decreased in cells overexpressing Snapin and increased in cells in which the expression of H 89 price Snapin was downregulated with anti-Snapin small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, respectively. Furthermore, viral DNA synthesis and progeny production were decreased

in cells overexpressing Snapin and increased in the anti-Snapin siRNA-treated cells, respectively. In contrast, no significant PLX3397 nmr difference in the nuclear level of UL70, viral DNA synthesis, and progeny production was found among the parental cells and cells that either expressed a control empty vector or were treated with control siRNA molecules that did not recognize any viral or cellular transcripts. Our results suggest that Snapin may play a key role in regulating the cellular localization

of UL70 in HCMV, leading to modulation of viral DNA synthesis and progeny production.”
“The original vectors of the bacterial two-hybrid technique developed by Karimova et al. in 1998 did not enable detection of the recombinant proteins. Here, we propose two methods resolving this problem, either using new plasmids containing the Flag epitope, or using a trick to detect the T18 domain of adenylate cyclase. Furthermore, we describe a set of vectors for TAP, CBP or 6-histidine tagging that Oxymatrine possess the same cloning site as our two-hybrid vectors.”
“Mind wandering (i.e. engaging in cognitions unrelated to the current demands of the external environment) reflects the cyclic activity of two core processes: the capacity to disengage attention from perception (known as perceptual decoupling) and the ability to take explicit note of the current contents of consciousness (known as meta-awareness). Research on perceptual decoupling demonstrates that mental events that arise without any external precedent (known as stimulus independent thoughts) often interfere with the online processing of sensory information. Findings regarding meta-awareness reveal that the mind is only intermittently aware of engaging in mind wandering.

Linear calibration curves for Paraoxon and Dichlorvos

det

Linear calibration curves for Paraoxon and Dichlorvos

determination have been obtained. The detection limits resulted to be 0.86 ppb and 4.2 ppb for Paraoxon and Dichlorvos, respectively, while the extension of the linear range was up 23 ppb for the former pesticide and up to 33 ppb for the latter. Because the inhibited enzyme can be reactivated when immediately treated with an oxime, the biosensor reactivation has been studied when 1,1′-trimethylene bis 4-formylpyridinium LGX818 purchase bromide dioxime (TMB-4) and pyridine 2-aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) were used. TMB-4 resulted more effective.

The comparison with the behavior of similar AChE based biosensors is also presented.”
“Purpose: We compared the learning curve and outcomes in children undergoing robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty during the initiation of a robotic surgery program compared to the benchmark of open pyeloplasty.

Materials and Methods: The records of our first consecutive 33 children Tucidinostat purchase undergoing robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty from 2006 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and compared to those of age and gender matched children who underwent open repair done by senior faculty

surgeons before the initiation of our robotic surgery program. We compared operative time, complications, postoperative pain, length of stay and surgical success for 2 surgeons who adopted the robotic approach at an academic teaching institution.

Results: We found no significant differences in length of stay, pain score or surgical success at a median followup of 16 months. The number of complications was similar and they tended to be early and technical in the robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Overall average operative time was 90 minutes longer (38%) for robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (p < 0.004). When evaluated

chronologically, there was evidence of a learning curve. After 15 to 20 robotic cases overall operative times for robotic assisted Tangeritin laparoscopic cases was consistently within 1 SD of our average open pyeloplasty time with no significant difference in overall operative time (p = 0.23). Of the decrease in overall operative time 70% was due to decreased pyeloplasty time rather than peripheral time.

Conclusions: There was similar safety and efficacy with robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty, although complications tended to be technical and early in our initial experience. Operative time decreased with experience and after 15 to 20 cases it was similar to that of open pyeloplasty with similar outcomes and surgical success.”
“Little is known about how the auditory cortex adapts to artificial input as provided by a cochlear implant (CI). We report the case of a 71-year-old profoundly deaf man, who has successfully used a unilateral Cl for 4 years.

A genetic connection between FOXP2 and CNTNAP2 has been demonstra

A genetic connection between FOXP2 and CNTNAP2 has been demonstrated in vitro, but not in vivo. Here we show that Cntnap2 mRNA levels significantly increased in the cerebellum of Foxp2(R552H) KI pups, although the cerebellar population of Foxp2-positive

Purkinje cells was very small. Furthermore, Cntnap2 immunofluorescence VX-809 clinical trial did not decrease in the poorly developed Purkinje cells of Foxp2(R552H) KI pups, although synaptophysin immunofluorescence decreased. Cntnap2 and CtBP were ubiquitously expressed, while Foxp2 co-localized with CtBP only in Purkinje cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that Foxp2 may regulate ultrasonic vocalization by associating with CtBP in Purkinje cells; Cntnap2 may be a target of this co-repressor. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Improved selleck screening library mechanistic understanding of renal cell death in acute kidney injury (AKI) has generated new therapeutic targets. Clearly, the classic lesion of acute tubular necrosis is not adequate to describe the consequences of renal ischemia, nephrotoxin exposure,

or sepsis on glomerular filtration rate. Experimental evidence supports a pathogenic role for apoptosis in AKI. Interestingly, proximal tubule epithelial cells are highly susceptible to apoptosis, and injury at this site contributes to organ failure. During apoptosis, well-orchestrated events converge at the mitochondrion, the organelle that integrates life and death signals generated by the BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) protein family. Death requires the ‘perfect storm’ for outer mitochondrial membrane injury to release its cellular ‘executioners’. The complexity of this process affords

new Fossariinae targets for effective interventions, both before and after renal insults. Inhibiting apoptosis appears to be critical, because circulating factors released by the injured kidney induce apoptosis and inflammation in distant organs including the heart, lung, liver, and brain, potentially contributing to the high morbidity and mortality associated with AKI. Manipulation of known stress kinases upstream of mitochondrial injury, induction of endogenous, anti-apoptotic proteins, and improved understanding of the timing and consequences of renal cell apoptosis will inevitably improve the outcome of human AKI.”
“Diabetes mellitus (DM) is currently one of the principal causes of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Approximately 40% of all diabetic patients eventually develop diabetic nephropathy (DN). The complexity of diabetes and its complications require a broad-based, unbiased, scientific approach, such as proteomics, in order to understand the progression of DN. Proteomic techniques have been applied extensively to explore the complexity of the mechanisms associated with DN, and to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Furthermore, our results suggest it

Furthermore, our results suggest it Bucladesine concentration may be possible to define specific stages in SD-related memory decline, and that fMRI could complement MRI and neuropsychological measures in providing

more precise prognostic and rehabilitative information for clinicians and carets. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The present study contrasted the neural correlates of encoding item-context associations according to whether the contextual information was visual or auditory. Subjects (N = 20) underwent fMRI scanning while studying a series of visually presented pictures, each of which co-occurred with either a visually or an auditorily presented name. The task requirement Fulvestrant cost was to judge whether the name corresponded to the presented object. In a subsequent memory test subjects judged whether test pictures were studied or unstudied and, for items judged as studied, indicated the presentation modality of the associated name. Dissociable cortical regions demonstrating increased activity for visual vs. auditory trials (and vice versa) were identified. A subset of these modality-selective regions also showed modality-selective

subsequent source memory effects, that is, enhanced responses on trials associated with correct modality judgments relative to those for which modality or item memory later failed. These findings constitute direct evidence for the proposal that successful encoding of a contextual feature is associated with enhanced activity in the cortical regions engaged during the on-line processing of that feature. in addition, successful encoding of visual objects within auditory contexts was associated with more extensive engagement of the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal

cortex than was the encoding of such objects within visual contexts. This raises the possibility that the encoding of across-modality item-context 5 FU associations places more demands on the hippocampus than does the encoding of within-modality associations. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The capacity for imagery, enabling us to visualise absent items and events, is a ubiquitous feature of our experience. This paper describes the case of a patient, MX, who abruptly lost the ability to generate visual images. He rated himself as experiencing almost no imagery on standard questionnaires, yet performed normally on standard tests of perception, visual imagery and visual memory. These unexpected findings were explored using functional MRI scanning (fMRI). Activation patterns while viewing famous faces were not significantly different between MX and controls, including expected activity in the fusiform gyrus. However, during attempted imagery, activation in MX’s brain was significantly reduced in a network of posterior regions while activity in frontal regions was increased compared to controls.

Methods: From September 21, 1998, to May 30, 2008, 250 patients u

Methods: From September 21, 1998, to May 30, 2008, 250 patients underwent EVAR at our hospital. Before July 1, 2004, EVAR patients underwent CT and DU imaging performed every 6 months during the first year and then annually if no problems were identified (group 1). We compared aneurysm sac size, presence of endoleak, and graft patency between the two scanning modalities. After

July 1, 2004, patients underwent surveillance using DU imaging as the sole surveillance study unless a problem was detected (group 2). CT and DU imaging Dabrafenib chemical structure charges for each regimen were compared using our 2008 health system pricing and Medicare reimbursements. All DU examinations were performed in our accredited noninvasive vascular laboratory by experienced technologists. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient.

Results: DU BMS345541 and CT scans were equivalent in determining aneurysm sac diameter after EVAR (P < .001). DU and CT were each as likely to falsely suggest

an endoleak when none existed and were as likely to miss an endoleak. Using DU imaging alone would have reduced cost of EVAR surveillance by 29% ($534,356) in group 1. Cost savings of $1595 per patient per year were realized in group 2 by eliminating CT scan surveillance. None of the group 2 patients sustained an adverse event such as rupture, graft migration, or limb occlusion as a result of having DU imaging performed as the sole follow-up

modality.

Conclusion: Surveillance of EVAR patients can be performed accurately, safely, and cost-effectively with DU as the sole imaging study. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50:1019-24.)”
“OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of manual compression and early ambulation after diagnostic and therapeutic neuroendovascular procedures.

METHODS: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed for consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic neuroendovascular procedures. Manual compression at the femoral access site was applied. The target for early ambulation was 2 hours after compression.

RESULTS: Three hundred forty-three ADAMTS5 patients were enrolled, of whom 295 were eligible for early ambulation. Diagnostic procedures totaled 214 (72.5%); therapeutic procedures, 81 (27.5%). Ambulation occurred at 2 hours for 82 patients who underwent a diagnostic and 11 patients who underwent a therapeutic procedure. Overall, 142 patients (66.4%) after a diagnostic and 21 patients (25.9%) after a therapeutic procedure ambulated within 3 hours; 94% of outpatients ambulated within 2 to 3 hours and were dismissed shortly thereafter. Delayed ambulation was related to nursing staff delays, recovery from general anesthesia, or patient preference. Fourteen patients (4.7%)-9 (4.2%) who had a diagnostic and 5 (6.

Three 2-D PAGE electrophoretograms were produced for each of the

Three 2-D PAGE electrophoretograms were produced for each of the three cell types and quantitatively analyzed. Protein identification by LC-MS/MS was performed to identify 39 proteins found to be present at statistically significantly different levels in the three cell

types (p < 0.05). Most of the 39 proteins have not been previously reported in EC proteomic studies of 2-D PAGE electrophoretograms. Three proteins, HSPA1B (HSP70 family member), HSPB1 (HSP27 family member), and UBE2D3 (a member of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes) found to be at highest levels in bm arterial endothelial cells, bm venous endothelial cells, and bm lymphatic endothelial cells, respectively, were validated by immunoblotting with appropriate antibodies. The lack of substantial overlap between our results and those of other groups’ comparative studies are discussed. TGF-beta inhibitor Functional implications of differences in levels of various proteins identified in the three cell types are also discussed.”
“Polyomaviruses are nonenveloped viruses with capsids composed primarily of 72 pentamers of the viral

VP1 protein, which forms the outer shell of the capsid and binds to cell surface oligosaccharide receptors. Highly conserved VP1 proteins from closely related polyomaviruses recognize different oligosaccharides. To determine whether amino acid changes restricted PF-6463922 nmr to the oligosaccharide binding site are sufficient to determine receptor specificity and how changes in Tacrolimus (FK506) receptor usage affect tropism, we studied the primate polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40), which uses the ganglioside GM1 as a receptor that mediates cell binding and entry. Here, we

used two sequential genetic screens to isolate and characterize viable SV40 mutants with mutations in the VP1 GM1 binding site. Two of these mutants were completely resistant to GM1 neutralization, were no longer stimulated by incorporation of GM1 into cell membranes, and were unable to bind to GM1 on the cell surface. In addition, these mutant viruses displayed an infection defect in monkey cells with high levels of cell surface GM1. Interestingly, one mutant infected cells with low cell surface GM] more efficiently than wild-type virus, apparently by utilizing a different ganglioside receptor. Our results indicate that a small number of mutations in the GM1 binding site are sufficient to alter ganglioside usage and change tropism, and they suggest that VP1 divergence is driven primarily by a requirement to accommodate specific receptors. In addition, our results suggest that GM1 binding is required for vacuole formation in permissive monkey CV-1 cells. Further study of these mutants will provide new insight into polyomavirus entry, pathogenesis, and evolution.

The attenuated DA response in alpha CaMKIIT286A mice was in line

The attenuated DA response in alpha CaMKIIT286A mice was in line with altered c-Fos activation in the ventral tegmental area after acute and subchronic alcohol administration. In order to compare findings in mice with the human JNJ-26481585 order condition, we tested 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CAMK2A gene for their association with alcohol dependence in a population of 1333 male patients with severe alcohol dependence and 939 controls. We found seven significant associations between CAMK2A SNPs and alcohol dependence, one of which in an autophosphorylation-related area of the gene. Together, our data suggest alpha CaMKII autophosphorylation as a

facilitating mechanism in the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior with changing the DA-5-HT balance as a putative mechanism.”
“Background: Oxytocin (OXT) and prolactin (PRL) are neuropeptide hormones that interact with the serotonin system and are check details involved in the stress response and social affiliation. In human studies, serum OXT and PRL levels have been associated with depression and related phenotypes. Our purpose was to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the loci for OXT, PRL and their receptors, OXTR and PRLR, were associated with childhood-onset mood disorders (COMD).

Methods: Using 678 families

in a family-based association design, we genotyped 16 SNPs at OXT, PRL, OXTR and PRLR to test for association with COMD.

Results: No significant associations were found for SNPs in the OXTR, PRL, or PRLR genes. Two of

three SNPs 3′ of the OXT gene were associated with COMD (p <= 0.02), significant after spectral decomposition, but were not significant after additionally correcting for the number of genes tested. Supplementary analyses of Bcl-w parent-of-origin and proband sex effects for OXT SNPs by Fisher’s Exact test were not significant after Bonferroni correction.

Conclusions: We have examined 16 OXT and PRL system gene variants, with no evidence of statistically significant association after correction for multiple tests. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“According to preclinical studies, glutamate has been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety. In order to elucidate the role of glutamate in anxiety and panic in humans, brain glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels were measured during cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4)induced panic using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eighteen healthy subjects underwent a CCK-4 challenge. MR spectra were obtained from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using a single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy method and analyzed using LCModel. A combined fitting of Glx was performed. Panic was assessed using the Acute Panic Inventory (API) and Panic Symptom Scale (PSS) scores. Moreover, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation was monitored throughout the challenge.

Pro-MMP-2 can be activated by several mechanisms depending on sti

Pro-MMP-2 can be activated by several mechanisms depending on stimulators and cell types. In particular, pro-MMP-2 can be activated by SGC-CBP30 mw highly expressed MT1-MMP and adequately expressed ON-01910 supplier TIMP-2 [35, 36]. Accordingly, our results indicate that further research is required on the roles played by TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP. MMP-9 is considered to be particularly good targets for anticancer drugs because it degrades gelatins, which are major components of the

basement membrane. The expression of MMP-9 correlated with an aggressive, advanced invasive or metastatic tumor phenotype [37, 38]. In the present study, the MMP-inhibitor Marimastat significantly inhibited osteosarcoma cell invasion, which suggest that MMPs are vital factor in osteosarcoma invasion, and that risedronate suppressed the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Accordingly, our findings demonstrate that risedronate has anti-invasive and antimetastatic activity via the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in human osteosarcoma cells. On the other hand, Ichinose et al found that BIIB057 solubility dmso bisphosphonates alone do not influence the amount of MMP-2 produced by human osteoblasts, which suggests that bisphosphonates suppress expression of MMPs in osteosarcoma cells but not in normal human osteoblasts [39]. According our MTT assay results, risedronate at up to 10 μM had no significant cytotoxic effect

on SaOS-2 or U2OS cells. Therefore, given the known importance of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in tumor invasion, our findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of risedronate on osteosarcoma cell invasion is probably due to MMP inhibition rather than tumor cell death. Conclusion This study suggests that risedronate downregulates the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in osteosarcoma, and that this is responsible for its effect on osteosarcoma cell invasiveness. This report provides first evidence that risedronate downregulates the expressions

and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Acknowledgements This study was supported by a grant (CRI08061-1) from Chonnam national university hospital research institute of clinical medicine. References 1. Thompson RC Jr, Cheng EY, Clohisy DR, Perentesis J, Manivel C, Le CT: Results of treatment Anacetrapib for metastatic osteosarcoma with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery. Clin Orthop 2002, 397: 240–247.CrossRefPubMed 2. Hauben EI, Arends J, Vandenbroucke JP, van Asperen CJ, Van Marck E, Hogendoorn PC: Multiple primary malignancies in osteosarcoma patients. Incidence and predictive value of osteosarcoma subtype for cancer syndromes related with osteosarcoma. Eur J Human Genetics 2003, 11: 611–618.CrossRef 3. Link MP: Preoperative and adjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma. In Frontiers of Osteosarcoma Research: Interdisciplinary Survey of Clinical and Research Advances. Edited by: Novak JF, Mcmaster JH. Seattle: Hogrefe and Huber; 1993:41–49.