First, we established a correlation between LPS treatment and Foxp3+ cell numbers. Next we showed that CD25+CD4+ T cells are enriched in CD103-expressing cells, a marker associated with enhanced regulatory function [52, 53] and preferential homing to inflammatory sites including the pancreas . Moreover, we revealed that Foxp3+ BVD-523 purchase cells within the CD25+CD4+ T cell subset display enhanced levels of Foxp3 expression, a phenotype also associated with enhanced suppressor function [58–60]. We also ascertained
that the frequency of CD25+ cells among the CD4− cell subset remained unchanged by LPS treatment (Fig. S8). Finally, other publications support our claim that LPS treatment protects from disease through the action of Treg. Hence, LPS administration prevents experimental autoimmune encephomyelitis by enhancing
Treg effector function . More importantly for the scope of this study, CD28−/− NOD mice that present a severe Treg defect  are refractory to the protective effect of LPS treatment . This latter finding strongly supports Pritelivir concentration our conclusions that Treg are involved in the mechanism of protection afforded by LPS. Several studies have placed Treg in the aetiology of diabetes in NOD mice. Impaired Treg function is detectable in aged animals [4–7], and adoptive transfer of Treg isolated from young animals protects adults from diabetes [2, 19]. Moreover, both Foxp3+CD4+ (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate and CD103+CD4+CD25+ cells were shown to be significantly decreased and to correlate with autoimmune disease predisposition in NOD as well as in other autoimmune-prone strains of mice . Hence, therapeutic strategies aiming at expanding Treg and/or enhancing their regulatory activity or, on the other hand, at preventing the decay of their effector activity, are expected
to protect NOD mice from diabetes. We previously reported that mouse Treg express a number of TLR, notably TLR-4, -2 and -5 , all of which bind to bacterial compounds, namely LPS, peptidoglycans and flagelin, respectively. These ligands have been shown by us and others to enhance Treg survival and function [40–43]. Moreover, LPS through its adjuvanticity induces APC maturation and activated DC support Treg expansion . In addition, end products of innate and adaptive immune responses, such as IL-2, also enhance Treg survival, expansion and activation ([13, 44, 45] and I. Caramalho, T. Lopes-Carvalho, J. Carneiro and J. Demengeot, unpublished results). Whether LPS treatment induces immune tolerance to pancreatic islet in NOD mice through direct or indirect effects on Treg, or more likely through both pathways, remains to be assessed. The systematic comparison between LPS-treated animals with the few untreated NOD mice that do not develop diabetes also revealed the robustness of the induced tolerance.