Going outdoors more often in good weather was associated with more falls, possibly marking where most falls occur . Consistent with prior studies , current smokers fell less often than women who have never smoked. While current smokers included in the study may represent a selective sample of healthy smokers who are resilient to smoking-related disease, current smoking may also be a marker for being better able to cope with smoking-related diseases, e.g., elimination of destabilizing activities while remaining active. Current smokers scored similarly on measures of physical performance
as nonsmokers but reported less physical activity even among unimpaired women. High levels of physical activity, involving recreational activities, stair climbing, and blocks walked, were associated with more falls among selleck kinase inhibitor IADL-impaired women, consistent with prior studies [1, selleck products 29]. Women who are IADL impaired and also walk and use stairs often may do so out of necessity to maintain their independence in the community (e.g., risk-taking) and therefore increase
their exposure to environmental hazards. Even a slight displacement of an individual’s center of gravity outside of its base of support may jeopardize postural stability among IADL-impaired women. Poor physically functioning older adults were as likely (or more) to have environmental hazards present in their homes compared to better-functioning older adults [36, 37]. Poor standing balance, fear of falling, IADL impairment, poor visual acuity, and postural dizziness are all potentially modifiable risk factors which each contribute to 5% or more of all falls, therefore warranting focus from clinical and community-wide fall intervention programs. Randomized controlled trials have been successful in preventing falls by reducing fear of falling , improving standing balance , reducing IADL impairment , and withdrawing
medications . However, a recent randomized controlled trial of frail older adults reported that Selleckchem Anlotinib improved vision increased falls Ureohydrolase . A possible explanation is that lifestyle changes may accompany improved vision, thus increasing exposure to environmental hazards and/or risk-taking, which may be particularly problematic in frail elderly . While use of AED is a strong risk factor, it contributes to less than 5% of falls suggesting it would be best addressed by healthcare professionals in individual patients. A history of falls contributed to more falls in the population (28%) than any other risk factor; therefore, preventing falls even among those who have not yet fallen is a worthy public health goal. We identified 15 independent potential risk factors, and not surprisingly, those with the most risk factors had the highest absolute risk.