Constructal analysis is performed up to the two-branching level o

Constructal analysis is performed up to the two-branching level on the classical blade-configured disk-shaped domain with central heat sink, adiabatic periphery and uniform heat generation. Transition point from one-branching-level to two-branching-level blade configuration is found. The effects of thermal conductivity Daporinad manufacturer ratio and overall volume fraction

of blade material on nondimensional constructal overall temperature difference are found to appear always in the form of their product. The number of tributaries does not affect the system performance. Constructal robustness is also observed. Compared with the dispersed configuration under same conditions, this orderly-arranged blade configuration generates much smaller I-BET-762 clinical trial constructal overall temperature difference and thus performs much better for the heat conduction domain considered. Therefore, searching for better and better heat-flow structure is significant to performance. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3486501]“
“Wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees are abundant in the northern part of Turkey, including

the Coruh Valley. We analyzed 18 wild sweet cherry genotypes collected from diverse environments in the upper Coruh Valley in Turkey to determine genetic variation, using 10 SSR primers. These SSR primers generated 46 alleles; the number of alleles per primer ranged from 3 to 7, with a mean of 4.6. The primer PS12A02 gave the highest number of polymorphic bands (N = 7), while CPSCT010, UDAp-401 and UDAp-404 gave the lowest number (N = 3). Seven groups were separated in the dendrogram, although most of the genotypes did not cluster according to phenological and morphological traits. This level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very

high and therefore these trees would be useful as breeders for crosses between cultivated sweet cherry selleck chemicals and wild genotypes.”
“In the setting of disparities in access to simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPKT), Medicare coverage for this procedure was initiated July 1999. The impact of this change has not yet been studied. A national cohort of 22 190 type 1 diabetic candidates aged 18-55 for kidney transplantation (KT) alone or SPKT was analyzed. Before Medicare coverage, 57% of Caucasian, 36% of African American and 38% of Hispanic type 1 diabetics were registered for SPKT versus KT alone. After Medicare coverage, these proportions increased to 68%, 45% and 43%, respectively. The overall increase in SPKT registration rate was 27% (95% CI 1.16-1.38). As expected, the increase was more substantial in patients with Medicare primary insurance than those with private insurance (Relative Rate 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.28). However, racial disparities were unaffected by this policy change (African American vs. Caucasian: 0.97, 95% CI 0.87-1.09; Hispanic vs. Caucasian: 0.94, 95% CI 0.78-1.05).

3-12 4]) Among co-infected mothers, the risk of transmission was

3-12.4]). Among co-infected mothers, the risk of transmission was significantly increased even when the A-1210477 load was less than 6 log copies/ml (p = 0.006). Risk factors were identified related to labor (duration and induction type); the birth process (rupture of the amniotic sac, complete opening of the sac, appearance of the amniotic fluid); fetal characteristics (prematurity) and obstetric maneuvers (instrumental extractions, spontaneous or induced perineal trauma) and none of these factors were associated with an increased rate of HCV maternal-fetal


Conclusions: HCV infection does not appear to be a legitimate indication for modifying obstetric practices with regards to type of induction, monitoring of labor, route of delivery, fetal

and perineal obstetric maneuvers or care of the newborn in the delivery room.”
“Background: The use of amino acid (AA) dialysate to ameliorate protein-energy malnutrition has been limited by adverse metabolic effects.

Objective: We undertook this study to examine the acute metabolic effects of escalating doses of AAs delivered with lactate/bicarbonate dialysate on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD).

Patients and Methods: 12 APD patients were treated with conventional lactate-buffered dialysate (week 1), followed by lactate/bicarbonate-buffered dialysate (week 2), then 2 – 2.5 L 1.1% AA solution were added (week 3), and then an additional 2 – 2.5 L 1.1% AA were added (week 4). The primary outcomes were change in serum bicarbonate and pH, change in protein catabolic rate (PCR), and change in normalized ultrafiltration (milliliters/gram Metabolism inhibitor of carbohydrate infused).

Results: Serum bicarbonate rose from week 1 to week 2 (28.9 Milciclib nmr +/- 3.2 vs 26.9 +/- 4.1 mmol/L, p =

0.03). Addition of one bag of AAs led to a decline in plasma bicarbonate (26.9 +/- 2.1 vs 28.9 +/- 3.2 mmol/L, p < 0.01), which was further magnified by the addition of the second bag of AAs (23.8 +/- 2.7 vs 26.9 +/- 2.1 mmol/L, p < 0.01). Serum bicarbonate fell significantly by week 4 compared to week 1 (23.8 +/- 2.7 vs 26.9 +/- 3.2 mmol/L, p < 0.01) although there was no significant change in venous pH or PCR when week 4 was compared to week 1. Normalized ultrafiltration was stable for the first 3 weeks but rose significantly in week 4 compared to week 1 (5.32 +/- 2.30 vs 4.14 +/- 1.58 mL/g, p = 0.03).

Conclusions: Higher doses of AAs mixed with newer bicarbonate/lactate dialysate on APD result in a small decrease in serum bicarbonate but improved normalized ultrafiltration. This merits further study as both a nutritional supplement and a glucose-sparing strategy.”
“BACKGROUND: Ethanol production from synthesis gas (syngas) by Clostridium ljungdahlii was autotrophically carried out in a continuous flow stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR). A 2 L bioreactor was operated at 37 degrees C and constant agitation rate of 500 rpm.

A trained group of medical staff conducted repeated measures tria

A trained group of medical staff conducted repeated measures trials for 2 pad removal protocols. The elevated torso technique, outlined by the NATA Inter-Association Task Force,

is the same as the flat torso except an additional assistant is employed to lift the patient’s shoulders 30 to 40 off the ground while the head holder maintains Smoothened Agonist price spinal alignment as the pads are removed. An electromagnetic tracking device captured angular and linear motions in 3 planes between the C5-C6 segments.

Results. The elevated torso technique generated significantly less C5-C6 motion in flexion/extension (P = 0.015) and lateral bending (P = 0.001), with a trend toward decreased cervical motion in axial rotation (P = 0.052). When moving the spine-injured cadavers, linear translation was also slightly, but not significantly less when the elevated torso technique was used. In the intact spine, significantly less motion was seen in 5 of 6 measures when the elevated torso technique

was used. However, the differences were not large enough to be clinically significant in an intact spine.

Conclusion. These findings support use of the elevated torso method to minimize cervical spine motion during shoulder pad removal when neither thoracic nor lumbar spinal injury is a concern.”
“The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of antiplatelets and anticoagulants increased haemoptysis in patients with bronchiectasis. Cases (n = 242) with a history of haemoptysis were compared with controls (n = 获悉更多 242) without a history of haemoptysis. Of the 242 case patients, 16.5% took antiplatelets compared with 19.8% of controls (P = 0.346). The proportion of warfarin users did not differ between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.588). The use of these agents might not be associated with increased risk of haemoptysis in patients with bronchiectasis.”
“P>The population of children with end-stage heart failure requiring mechanical circulatory support is growing. These

children present for diagnostic imaging studies, various interventions and noncardiac surgical procedures that require anesthetic care. This article is a review of the population demographics of children on mechanical cardiac support, the alternative devices available, and the important concepts for safe perioperative management of these patients. The discussion will be limited to devices for short- and long-term cardiac support, excluding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for respiratory support.”
“Study Design. A retrospective investigation of clinical and radiologic outcomes after surgical treatment for 2-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Objective. The study was undertaken to compare the outcomes of 2 different anterior approach types for 2-level CSM. Specifically, 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) was compared with 1-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF).

We identified 150 patients with no typical events on LTM and matc

We identified 150 patients with no typical events on LTM and matched them with consecutive controls with typical events. We compared patient demographics, epilepsy risk factors, history of antiepileptic use/failures, and prior EEG and MRI results.

Results: NVP-AUY922 Of 2397 LTM studies, 380 (15.8%) failed to record typical events. Absence of epilepsy risk factors and normal outpatient EEG predicted this outcome. A repeat LTM study was successful in 18 of 45 patients (42%).

Conclusion: The prediction of a nondiagnostic LTM can help to reduce the cost of investigating spells of unknown nature. (C)

2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The dynamics of atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilevers in liquid environments have been previously shown to be extremely complex and nonlinear, exhibiting phenomena such as momentary excitation of higher eigenmodes, fluid-borne excitation, mass loading, and the emergence of sub-harmonic responses. It has also been shown that the signals acquired by the instrument can differ significantly between tip-and base-excited cantilevers in highly damped

environments, such that it can be difficult for users to modulate the peak impact forces for base-excited AFM systems that are not equipped with advanced force spectroscopy tools. Despite the dynamic complexity, we show that through understanding of simple scaling laws based on the damped harmonic oscillator model and operation at high amplitude setpoints, it is possible to modulate the tip-sample forces, which could be useful in studies that Barasertib chemical structure require experiments involving different but controllable peak force levels. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3657940]“
“Intraatrial reentrant tachycardia (IART) is the most common long-term, surgical arrhythmia sequela in patients with complex congenital

heart disease. The management of IART is challenging. Medications, catheter ablation therapy, and pacemaker therapy have all been utilized as treatment options. Slower tachycardia cycle lengths and 1:1 GSI-IX nmr atrioventricular conduction provide even more challenges with regard to detection and antitachycardia pacing. We describe the use of the rate response feature as a means of patient-initiated cardioversion. (PACE 2012;XX:14)”
“The increasing spread of invasive alien plants has changed biodiversity throughout the world. To date research in this area has focused on how invasive plant species affect pollinator behaviour, but there is a lack of data on the impact that alien plant species have on wild pollinator populations. Since their introduction in the 19th century, and rapid spread after the 1950s, alien goldenrods (Solidago canadensis, Solidago gigantea) have been among the most successful invasive plant species in Europe. We studied the effects of goldenrods on wild pollinator communities in SE Poland.

colt commonly found in human feces Several PCR methods, with bot

colt commonly found in human feces. Several PCR methods, with both single and multiple target genes, have been reported for detecting the different DEC pathotypes. In the present study five hundred E. colt isolates from children with diarrhea were subjected into multiplex PCR. Furthermore the strains were typed serologically with O antisera and their fliC gene was characterized by PCR-RFLP. The results obtained

revealed that overall 41(8.2%) this website isolates could be detected as EPEC by this multiplex PCR assay. Of these isolates; 27 (66%) were typical (escv+, bfp+) and 14 (34%) atypical EPEC (escv+, bfp-). None of these 41 isolates contained the Stx1 and Stx2 genes. Among 37 (90%) typeable strains, nine different serogroups were present. The most common serogroups were O111, followed by O86, O55 and O119 and 10 different H types were found among these isolates. The multiplex PCR assay was found to be rapid and reliable in comparison to serological test; especially when screening the large number of isolates.”
“BACKGROUND Earlobe cleft is a common problem caused by the

wearing of jewelry or decorative objects. Incomplete earlobe clefts are usually bilateral and are often converted to complete AZD7762 in vitro clefts as part of the surgical repair procedure.

OBJECTIVE We present a nonsurgical procedure for incomplete earlobe cleft repair using trichloroacetic acid 90%.

METHODS AND MATERIALS We assessed 32 patients with a total of 53 earlobes to be noninvasively repaired.

RESULTS Complete treatment varied from 2 to 50 days, an average of 15 days between the first and last application of trichloroacetic acid 90%. No recurrences were observed during 1 year of follow-up. All Fedratinib cell line of the clefts were

totally repaired, and all of the patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results.

CONCLUSIONS Considering the surgical limitations, the noninvasive procedure described here may be considered to be a good option for incomplete earlobe cleft repair because of its good functional and cosmetic results, low cost, minimum risk, and easy application.”
“Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major contributing factor to endotoxic shock. Colistin specifically binds to LPS. However, it has the disadvantages that adverse reactions are common and it has a short half-life. To overcome these disadvantages, we prepared slow-releasing colistin microspheres and examined the efficacy of these colistin microspheres in a mouse model of endotoxin-induced sepsis. We prepared the colistin microspheres using poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid. For acute toxicity investigations, mice were overdosed with colistin sulfate or colistin microspheres. The group administered with colistin microspheres was associated with less acute toxicity and fewer nephrotoxic changes on histopathological examination compared to the group administered with colistin sulfate alone. For pharmacokinetic analysis, mice were subcutaneously administered with colistin microspheres or colistin sulfate alone.

Two hundred sixty-six patients were recruited The LAEP was compl

Two hundred sixty-six patients were recruited. The LAEP was completed in a short time, perceived as easy to complete, and there was no relevant information missing. Ceiling/floor effects were negligible. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84) and test-retest reliability (ICC =

0.81) were satisfactory. LAEP scores consistently correlated with QOLIE-31 (r = 0.71) and HADS (r = 0.52-0.63) scores. When the LAEP was used to discriminate between patients with and without adverse events, the scores on the QOLIE and HADS corresponded. The Spanish version of the LAEP scale exhibits adequate psychometric properties, suggesting that it is an appropriate instrument to measure adverse events among Spanish-speaking patients with epilepsy. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Study Design. Descriptive

questionnaire selleck kinase inhibitor study.

Objective. This preliminary study was undertaken to try and develop an understanding of the factors that may affect recovery in aircrew with musculoskeletal disabilities.

Summary of Background Data. Clinical recovery from musculoskeletal disabilities is generally achieved after the patient undergoes definitive therapy and rehabilitation. However, a proportion of patients may continue to suffer from morbidity and pain long after clinical and radiological finality has been reached. In these cases, psychosocial factors may have played a contributory role. There has been no research documenting or studying such factors in aviation and pilots in particular.

Methods. The study was carried out at the Department of Human Engineering from 2004 ZD1839 purchase to 2006. A detailed questionnaire was designed to elicit basic clinical details and psychosocial factors at work and home.

Results. A total of 57 male aircrew participated voluntarily in this study. Of these, 41 (71.9%) achieved normal recovery, whereas

in the remaining 16 (28.1%), recovery was considered delayed. The mean age of aircrew in the normal recovery group (33.1 +/- 4.6 years) was slightly higher than those in the delayed group (31.0 +/- 3.2 years). All the aircrew who had delayed recovery had a spinal disability, whereas spinal disabilities constituted only 46.3% in the normal recovery group. Of the spinal disabilities in aircrew with delayed recovery, 12 had low backache. Aircraft accidents and ejection accounted for almost one-fifth of the total disabilities (n = 11, 21.9%). The respondents identified multiple sources of emotional support viz., friends, family, and parents.

Conclusion. A hypothetical model is proposed that possibly explains to some extent the role of psychosocial factors affecting recovery in aircrew with musculoskeletal disabilities. Further research in psychological and emotional consequences of trauma, in particular ejection and the best means/timings to address these, is recommended.

The anticonvulsant efficacy of BmK AS in PTZ- or pilocarpine-evok

The anticonvulsant efficacy of BmK AS in PTZ- or pilocarpine-evoked seizure-like behavior and cortical epileptiform EEG activity was assessed. Intrahippocampal injections of BmK AS (0.05-1 mu g in 1 mu L) produced dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ model, suppressing seizure-associated behavior and reducing both the number and duration of high-amplitude, high-frequency discharges (HAFDs) on the EEG. In contrast, BmK AS did not affect the epileptiform EEG in the pilocarpine

model over the same dose range, although it did increase the latency to status epilepticus onset and slightly, but significantly, reduced the seizure score. In summary, our results demonstrate selleck kinase inhibitor that the sodium channel site 4-selective modulator BmK AS is an BI-D1870 cell line effective inhibitor of PTZ- but not pilocarpine-induced acute seizures. These results indicate that BmK AS may serve as a novel probe in exploring the role of different sodium channel subtypes in an epileptogenic setting and as a potential lead in developing antiepileptic drugs specifically for the therapy of sodium channel site 4-related epilepsy. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The weight, shape and consistency of the heart, and the thickness of the ventricular wall are used as parameters for evaluating postmortem heart and diagnosing cardiomyopathy at autopsy. Methods: The weight and volume of the ventricles

and the thickness of the left ventricular wall of

58 hearts were measured and analyzed. Results: In the group of dilated hearts, the ventricular weight, ventricular volume, ventricular volume/ventricular weight, and left ventricular volume/right ventricular volume increased, whereas ventricular wall thickness decreased. In the group of hypertrophied hearts, the ventricular weight, ventricular volume, and thickness of the ventricular wall increased but ventricular volume/ventricular weight and left ventricular volume/right ventricular volume did not change significantly. In the group of undetermined hearts, it was later found that four of the cases should have been included in the dilated heart group and another two cases in the hypertrophied heart group. Conclusions: In addition to conventional LY3039478 cost methods, the measuring ventricular volume is useful for evaluating a postmortem heart and may suggest postmortem differential diagnoses of dilated or hypertrophied forms of secondary cardiomyopathies.”
“Few tools assessing neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia are able to measure integrated executive functions in the context of the problem-solving demands of a patient’s everyday world. The authors evaluated the BRIEF-A (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version) Informant Report in 112 inpatients with chronic schizophrenia in a rehabilitation hospital. Factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution (Emotional Regulation, Problem-Solving, Orderliness).

5%) returned for their DST results Based on DST, treatment was m

5%) returned for their DST results. Based on DST, treatment was modified in four patients (3.4%).

CONCLUSION: Using solid culture, 150 cultures need to be tested for one treatment modification and 30 for DST. The cost of the widespread application of culture

will need to be balanced against its impact on treatment decisions in India.”
“Objective: Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare disease with a non-specific and insidious presentation that is further complicated by difficult diagnostic learn more and therapeutic assessment.

Methods: The database PubMed was searched for reports of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma between 1986 (first case published) and 2012. All of the articles presenting informations regarding one or more cases of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the head and neck region, in patients less than 18 years of age, were included. The reference

lists for pertinent reports were also scanned to ensure that all relevant literature was included.

Results: We present a case of a 14 year-old girl, with a 2-month history of a right-sided level II neck mass. After a careful] radiologic evaluation the mass was resected combined with a right selective neck dissection. Histology with immunohistochemical staining was positive for follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. No recurrence was seen after 31 months follow-up. The literature search identified six more cases of pediatric follicular dendritic buy Buparlisib cell sarcoma of the head and neck. This is the first female patient with follicular dendritic cell sarcoma in the pediatric population.

Conclusions: Current treatment of head and neck follicular dendritic cell sarcoma consists of wide radical resection, with associated radiotherapy or chemotherapy only for cases with aggressive disease such as extracapsular invasion, tumor size >= 6 cm or after failure of the first-line surgical treatment. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“SETTING: Five districts and four cities of Bangladesh.


To study the role of informal health practitioners in delays in initiating tuberculosis (TB) treatment in new smear-positive TB patients.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of all patients registered within specific projects in Bangladesh using routine records from projects. Definitions were as follows: 1) total delay: duration from onset of symptoms to initiation of treatment; 2) patient delay: onset of symptoms to first visit to any practitioner; and 3) health system delay: first visit to practitioner to treatment initiation.

RESULTS: A total of 7280 cases were enrolled. Prolonged delay was calculated as >= 5 weeks for patient delay, >= 10 weeks for health system delay and >= 13 weeks for total delay. Prolonged patient delay was less frequent when patients first consulted informal as compared to qualified health practitioners (30% vs. 68%).

These effects can be adjusted by changing the experimental config

These effects can be adjusted by changing the experimental configuration. We use theoretical calculations, ABT-737 molecular weight which include dynamical diffraction effects and in which electronic transitions are treated in the atomic multiplet formalism, to show that the relative weight of the Fe atoms in different nonequivalent atomic sites can be changed by a proper choice of the position of the detector and of the magnetite sample orientation and thickness. We

conclude that EMCD spectra could be used to isolate the magnetic contribution of atoms in each of the nonequivalent atomic sites, which would not be possible with XMCD techniques. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3556769]“
“Purpose: To determine the prevalence of parenchymal brain microhemorrhages (MHs) in infants with nonaccidental trauma (NAT) by using susceptibility-weighted (SW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to assess whether the presence of MH results in improved prediction of the long-term neurologic outcome.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control analysis of the data for 101 children aged 1-32 months with forensic pediatric specialist-confirmed NAT was performed with institutional review board approval. Sixty-two patients were boys (mean age,

8.4 months +/- 7.4 [standard deviation]), and 39 were girls (mean age, 7.4 months +/- 7.8). The imaging findings and MLN2238 manufacturer clinical data of the children who were examined with SW imaging were collected. Exclusion criteria included pre-existing cognitive delays, central nervous system malformations, previous brain injuries, and/or birth before 30 weeks gestation. Dichotomized long-term neurologic outcomes (good [normal, check details mild disability, or moderate disability] versus poor [severe disability, vegetative state, or death]) at greater than or equal to 6 months (mean, 33 months; range 6-95 months) were available for 53 patients (36 boys [mean age, 7.3 months +/- 5.9]; 17 girls [mean age, 7.4 months +/- 7.9]; overall range, 2-32 months). Logistic regression was used to determine whether the presence of SW imaging-depicted MH, as

compared with other radiologic findings, resulted in improved prediction of long-term neurologic outcome.

Results: Imaging findings showed that of the 101 patients, 29 (29%) had MH at SW imaging, 66 (65%) had extraaxial hemorrhages, 52 (51%) had retinal hemorrhages, and 35 (35%) had evidence of acute ischemic injury. A significantly larger number of children with poor outcomes than children with good outcomes had brain MH (nine of 14 vs seven of 39; P = .001) and ischemic injury (13 of 14 vs 17 of 39; P = .006). Logistic regression analysis revealed presence of MH at SW imaging-followed by acute ischemic injury, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and age-to be the most significant single variable in the final model, with an overall predictive accuracy of 92.5%.

5 0 angstrom/ps, and a region of weak dependence at v > 6 50 a

5.0 angstrom/ps, and a region of weak dependence at v > 6.50 angstrom/ps. These investigations may provide some insight into the microcosmic principle of the failure process of polymeric adhesives. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals,

Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 460-468, 2010″
“Background Safety and efficacy of fumaric acid esters (FAE) in patients with psoriasis requiring treated comorbidit condition were investigated. Patients and Methods Data collected from 7 dermatology centers were used for a retrospective analysis of patients treated continuously with selleckchem FAE for at least 6 weeks who required at least one medication for a comorbid condition. The records were analyzed at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of therapy. Safety parameters were monitored and the severity

of skin symptoms was assessed by Physician’s Global Assessment’ (PGA). Results A total of 69 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and a mean duration of 27.4 months of continuous JNK inhibitor treatment were included in the study. In less than 5% were interactions between FAE and co-medications observed. Changes of hepatic, renal or hematological laboratory parameters were usually insignificant and required a modification of FAE treatment in less than 12% of the cases. The percentage of patients documented as markedly improved or clear was 61% after 6 months, 77% after 12 months, and 75% after 24 months of therapy. Conclusions In patients with moderate to severe psoriasis on co-medications, FAE were effective and safe without any noteworthy drug interactions.”
“A CP-690550 cell line systematic study on the energy level alignment, chemical interaction,

and electron doping at interfaces between bathocuproine (BCP) and various types of metals (Au, Cu, Ag, Mg, and Ca) was carried out by performing ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and electronic conductivity measurements. The energy level alignment at BCP/metal interfaces was found to depend on the metal work function (Phi(m)). For BCP on Au and Cu, whose Phi(m) exceeds 4.3 eV, the energy shift in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level with respect to the metal Fermi level (E-F) almost accords with the variation in Phi(m). For BCP on Ag, Mg, and Ca, whose Phi(m) is below 4.3 eV, the HOMO energy level is fixed at 3.7 eV with respect to E-F regardless of Phi(m) and new electronic states, called gap states, appeared at BCP/metal interfaces. Since the appearance of gap states is correlated with the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level with respect to E-F, these states appear to have formed mainly through the interaction with the LUMO. A clear correlation between the density of the gap states and the vacuum level shift suggesting a charge redistribution at BCP/metal interfaces was found.