Control of inflammation may have an effect on modifying cardiovascular risk. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 38:372-381″
“Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an inorganic constituent compound of human bones and teeth, with superior biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Its crystal structure is hexagonal, characterized by a(b)- and c-planes. In Selleckchem PP2 vertebrate long bones, HAp crystals have a c-axis orientation, while in tooth enamel, they have an a(b)-axis orientation.
Many methods can be used to synthesize c-axis oriented HAp single crystals; however, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a synthesis method for a(b)-axis oriented HAp single crystals. In this study, we successfully synthesized plate-like HAp crystals at the air-liquid interface of a starting solution via an enzyme reaction of urea with urease. Crystal phase analysis and ultrastructure observations were carried out, and the results indicated that the particles were single crystals, with almost the same a(b)-axis orientation as tooth enamel. It is hoped that by utilizing their unique surface charge and atomic arrangement, the resulting particles can be used as a high-performance
biomaterial, capable of adsorbing bio-related substances and a model for tooth enamel. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“To further understand the process of Al-induced citrate secretion from soybean roots, the effect of protein synthesis inhibitor, anion channel blockers, and citrate carrier inhibitors on Al-induced citrate exudation was investigated in Al-resistant soybean cultivar PI 416937. Citrate exudation from roots increased with the Crenigacestat increase of Al concentration from 10 to 50 mu M and initiated after 4 h of Al exposure. Protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHM; 25 mu M) completely inhibited Al-induced citrate secretion during 12-h exposure,
suggesting that novel protein synthesis was necessary in Al-induced citrate efflux. Also both anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C) and citrate carrier inhibitor mersalyl acid Adavosertib nmr (Mersalyl) significantly reduced citrate secretion, suggesting that both anion channels in plasma membrane and citrate carriers in mitochondria membrane were the rate limiting factors of Al dependent citrate release. However, Al-induced citrate secretion was insensitive to anion channel blockers phenylglyoxal (PG), 4,4′-diisothiocyanostibene-2,2′-disulfonat (DIDS) and citrate carrier inhibitor pyridoxal 5′-P (PP).”
“Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend.
05). Vaginal www.selleckchem.com/products/Erlotinib-Hydrochloride.html lubrication in the surgically menopausal group was lower than in the naturally menopausal group (P smaller than 0.05). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, prolactin, and thyrotropin levels were
not statistically different between the groups (P bigger than 0.05), whereas serum estradiol and total testosterone levels in the surgically menopausal group were lower than those of the naturally menopausal group (P smaller than 0.05). ConclusionThe results of this study showed that surgical menopause did not affect female sexual performance differently from natural menopause, with the exception of vaginal lubrication. Kokcu A, Kurtoglu E, Bildircin D, Celik H, Kaya A, and Alper T. Does surgical menopause affect sexual performance differently from natural menopause? J Sex Med 2015;12:1407-1414.”
“Proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF) induces muscle loss in cancer cachexia through a high affinity membrane bound receptor. This study investigates the mechanism by which the PIF receptor communicates to intracellular signalling pathways. C2C12 murine myoblasts were used as a model using PIF purified from MAC16 turnouts. Calcium imaging was determined using fura-4-acetoxymethyl selleck screening library ester (Fura-4-AM). PIF induced a rapid rise in Ca-i(2+), which was completely attenuated by a anti-receptor antibody,
or peptides representing 20 mers of the N-terminus of the PIF receptor. Other learn more agents catabolic for skeletal muscle including angiotensin II (AngII) tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also induced a rise in Ca-i(2+), but this was not attenuated by anti-PIF-receptor antibody. The rise in Ca-i(2+) induced by PIF and AngII was completely attenuated by the Zn2+ chelator D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-triphosphate, and this was reversed by administration of exogenous Zn2+. The Ca-i(2+) rise induced by PIF was independent of the presence of extracellular Ca2+, and attenuated by the Ca2+ pump inhibitor thapsigargin, suggesting that the Ca-i(2+) rise was due to release from intracellular
stores. This rise in Ca-i(2+) induced by PIF was attenuated by both the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and 2-APB, an inhibitor of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein. Binding of the PIF to its receptor in skeletal muscle triggers a rise in Ca-i(2+), which initiates a signalling cascade leading to a depression in protein synthesis, and an increase in protein degradation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A flexible, low-cost, high-brightness light source for biological and biomedical imaging is presented. The illuminating device consists of a custom-size square plastic pouch 10 to 20 mm on a side and 1 to 3 mm thick that can be inserted fully or partially into both in situ or in vitro specimens to be imaged.
The strain was also detected in one endoscope used for these examinations.\n\nDisc diffusion assays, MICs and isoelectric focusing were used to characterize the plasmidic CTX-M-15 -lactamase. PCRs were Ruboxistaurin price used to check for the presence of genes associated
with virulence or antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic tolerance tests and plasmid transfer were carried out in both planktonic and biofilm conditions.\n\nThe strain belonged to sequence type 14 and to the virulent capsular serotype K2, but produced little glucuronic acid. It contained a 62.5 kb conjugative plasmid carrying the bla(CTX-M-15), bla(OXA-1) and aac(6)-Ib-cr genes and harboured few virulence genes (uge, wabG, kfu and mrkD). The strain was highly resistant to cefotaxime (MIC
516 mg/L) and the presence of this antibiotic at sub-MIC concentrations enhanced biofilm formation. The isolate was susceptible to ofloxacin (MIC 2 mg/L), but the bactericidal effect of this antibiotic was greater in planktonic cultures and 6 h old biofilm than in 24 or 48 h old biofilms. The K. pneumoniae strain was notable Wnt inhibitor for its ability to transfer its plasmid, especially in biofilm conditions, in which the rate of plasmid transfer was about 0.5/donor.\n\nThese findings demonstrate the ability of this strain to survive in a hospital environment and to transfer its extended-spectrum -lactamase-encoding plasmid.”
“Tungsten alloys are composed of
tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. To understand the toxicology of these alloys, male F344 rats were intramuscularly implanted with pellets of tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, or pure tungsten, with tantalum pellets as a negative control. Between 6 and LY294002 clinical trial 12 months, aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas formed around tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets, while those of tungsten/nickel/iron or pure tungsten did not cause cancers. Electron microscopy showed a progressive corrosion of the matrix phase of tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets over 6 months, accompanied by high urinary concentrations of nickel and cobalt. In contrast, non-carcinogenic tungsten/nickel/iron pellets were minimally corroded and urinary metals were low; these pellets having developed a surface oxide layer in vivo that may have restricted the mobilization of carcinogenic nickel. Microarray analysis of tumors revealed large changes in gene expression compared with normal muscle, with biological processes involving the cell cycle significantly up-regulated and those involved with muscle development and differentiation significantly down-regulated. Top KEGG pathways disrupted were adherens junction, p53 signaling, and the cell cycle.
This mutation had not CH5424802 mouse been reported previously. Compared with other molecularly confirmed cases in the literature, this family has primarily ocular features, which are severe.\n\nConclusions: BOFS can have profound
ocular involvement without prominent extraocular features. When the syndrome presents in this way, it may be confused with isolated autosomal dominant chorioretinal coloboma. Testing for mutations in the TFAP2A gene is recommended to establish an accurate diagnosis for the family.”
“It is widely accepted that for many North American forest ecosystems, changes in species composition and structure are associated with departures from natural disturbance regimes (e.g., fire exclusion). It also widely accepted that restoration of species composition and structure, similar to those which existed under natural disturbance regimes, will in turn restore BIX 01294 datasheet and maintain: (1) ecosystem resilience
to a broad range of environmental challenges: (2) important elements of ecosystem function: and (3) disturbance-adapted species assemblages and thus conservation of biodiversity. Much of the research relevant to emulating natural disturbance regimes (ENDR) in North America has focused on natural fire regimes, particularly those characterized by frequent/low-severity fires. Increasingly, attention is being focused on natural disturbance regimes other than fire and on interactions between different disturbance types. However, the greatest challenges to implementation of ENDR are socioeconomic rather than ecological. There is, for
example, limited social acceptance of management based on high-severity natural disturbance regimes. And while there is much broader acceptance of ENDR based on frequent/low-severity disturbance 4EGI-1 cost regimes, there is nevertheless strong disagreement concerning how ENDR is to be implemented. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study builds on previous work delineating a hierarchical model of family environmental risk in relation to a hierarchical model of externalizing disorders (EXTs) by evaluating for gene environment interplay in these relationships. The associations between parent child relationship quality (conflict, bonding, and management) and substance-specific adolescent family environments (parental/sibling tobacco/alcohol use) in relation to young adult EXTs (age similar to 22 years nicotine, alcohol, and other drug dependence; antisocial and risky sexual behavior) were evaluated. Method: The sample included 533 adopted offspring and 323 biological offspring. Because adopted youth do not share genes with their parents, a significant association between parent child relationship quality and EXTs would provide evidence against passive gene environment correlation (rGE). Significant associations between parental tobacco/alcohol use in relation to offspring nicotine/alcohol dependence in the adopted offspring support common environmental influence.
Methods. GSV was
measured through 3D ultrasound using the planimetric, virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) and extended imaging virtual organ computer-aided analysis (XI VOCAL) methods. The planimetric method used a sequence of adjacent planes that are 3 mm thick. For the VOCAL methods, six adjacent planes and a 30 degrees rotation were used. A total of 15 adjacent planes were used for the XI VOCAL method. Regression models with a determination coefficient (R<SU2</SU) were created to assess the correlation between GSV and gestational age (GA). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman graphs were used to assess the correlation between the three methods and ANOVA was used to compare means. Results. All Selleckchem Omipalisib three methods showed a correlation between GSV and GA (R<SU2</SU = 0.65 for XI VOCAL, R<SU2</SU = 0.65 for planimetric and R<SU2</SU = 0.66 for VOCAL). There was a strong correlation between the three methods (XI VOCAL vs. planimetric ICC = 0.995; XI VOCAL vs. VOCAL ICC = 0.998 and planimetric vs. VOCAL ICC = 0.995) without any significant
differences according to the Bland-Altman graphs or ANOVA PRIMA-1MET mouse (p < 0.002). Conclusions. The three 3D ultrasound methods used for GSV assessment between 7 and 11 weeks are concordant. These methods can be used interchangeably during the first trimester of pregnancy to measure GSV.”
“Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common disease of childhood. AOM is most appropriately diagnosed by careful otoscopy with an understanding of clinical signs and symptoms.
The distinction between AOM and chronic otitis media with effusion should be emphasized. Treatment should include pain management, and initial antibiotic treatment should be given to those most likely to benefit, including young children, EPZ 6438 children with severe symptoms, and those with otorrhea and/or bilateral AOM. Tympanostomy tube placement may be helpful for those who experience frequent episodes of AOM or fail medical therapy. Recent practice guidelines may assist the clinician with such decisions.”
“To determine whether continuous administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil-either alone or together-alters blood flow in oral tissues during sevoflurane anesthesia. Eight male tracheotomized Japanese white rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane under mechanical ventilation. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), common carotid arterial blood flow (CCBF), tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), mandibular bone marrow blood flow (BBF), masseter muscle blood flow (MBF), upper alveolar tissue blood flow (UBF), and lower alveolar tissue blood flow (LBF) were recorded in the absence of all test agents and after administration of the test agents (50 % nitrous oxide, 0.4 mu g/kg/min remifentanil, and their combination) for 20 min.
This review addresses possible common signaling pathways that might promote both structural and electrical remodeling of the atria, thus contributing to atrial fibrillation perpetuation.Recent findingsSustained atrial fibrillation Wnt inhibitor may trigger an inflammatory response leading to activation of myofibroblasts and to the release of cytokines such as transforming growth factor- and platelet-derived growth factor, as well as profibrotic proteins such as galectin-3. Activation of signaling cascades involving such proteins is critical
for the development of fibrosis and may also lead to ion channel dysfunction, which, along with myocyte apoptosis and extracellular matrix generation and turnover, likely contributes to both electrical and structural remodeling and predisposes to atrial fibrillation.SummaryIdentifying upstream strategies targeting molecular pathways that are common to fibrosis and electrical remodeling leading to atrial fibrillation perpetuation is highly desirable. This would facilitate finding new target genes with pleiotropic effects on the expression
of ion channel proteins in myocytes and profibrotic molecules in nonmyocyte cells that are important for pathologic remodeling, which could become an important goal in persistent atrial fibrillation therapy.”
“Antimicrobials are widely used in preventive and curative medicine in animals. Benefits from curative use are clear – it allows sick animals ML323 inhibitor to be healthy with a gain in human welfare. The case for preventive use of antimicrobials is less clear cut with debates on the value of antimicrobials as growth promoters in the intensive livestock industries. The possible benefits from the use of antimicrobials need to be balanced against their cost and the increased risk of emergence
of resistance due to their use in animals. The study examines the importance of animals in society and how the role and management of animals is changing including the use of antimicrobials. It proposes an economic framework to assess the trade-offs of anti-microbial use and examines the current level https://www.selleckchem.com/products/MK-2206.html of data collection and analysis of these trade-offs. An exploratory review identifies a number of weaknesses. Rarely are we consistent in the frameworks applied to the economic assessment anti-microbial use in animals, which may well be due to gaps in data or the prejudices of the analysts. There is a need for more careful data collection that would allow information on (i) which species and production systems antimicrobials are used in, (ii) what active substance of antimicrobials and the application method and (iii) what dosage rates. The species need to include companion animals as well as the farmed animals as it is still not known how important direct versus indirect spread of resistance to humans is.
“In this study, the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble drug, perphenazine (PPZ) was improved by a solid dispersion technique to permit its usage in intraoral formulations. Dissolution of PPZ (4 mg)
in a small liquid volume (3 ml, pH 6.8) within one minute was set as the objective. PVP K30 and PEG 8000 were selected for carriers according to the solubility parameter approach and their 5/1, 1/5 and 1/20 mixtures with PPZ (PPZ/polymer w/w) were prepared by freeze-drying from 0.1 N HCl solutions. The dissolution rate of PPZ was improved with all drug/polymer mixture 17DMAG research buy ratios compared to crystalline or micronized PPZ. A major dissolution rate improvement was seen with 1/5 PPZ/PEG formulation, i.e. PPZ. was dissolved completely within one minute. SAXS, DSC and XRPD measurements indicated that solid solutions of amorphous PPZ in amorphous PVP or in partly amorphous PEG were formed. DSC and FTIR studies suggested that PPZ dihydrochloride salt was formed and hydrogen bonding was occurred between PPZ and the polymers. It was concluded that molecular mixing together with salt formation promoted the dissolution of PPZ, especially in the case of the 1/5 PPZ/PEG dispersion, making it a promising candidate for use in intraoral formulations. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights LCL161 reserved.”
“The nucleolus is a nuclear organelle that coordinates rRNA transcription and
ribosome subunit biogenesis. Recent
proteomic analyses have CT99021 in vivo shown that the nucleolus contains proteins involved in cell cycle control, DNA processing and DNA damage response and repair, in addition to the many proteins connected with ribosome subunit production. Here we study the dynamics of nucleolar protein responses in cells exposed to stress and DNA damage caused by ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in diploid human fibroblasts. We show using a combination of imaging and quantitative proteomics methods that nucleolar substructure and the nucleolar proteome undergo selective reorganization in response to UV damage. The proteomic responses to UV include alterations of functional protein complexes such as the SSU processome and exosome, and paraspeckle proteins, involving both decreases and increases in steady state protein ratios, respectively. Several nonhomologous end-joining proteins (NHEJ), such as Ku70/80, display similar fast responses to UV. In contrast, nucleolar proteomic responses to IR are both temporally and spatially distinct from those caused by UV, and more limited in terms of magnitude. With the exception of the NHEJ and paraspeckle proteins, where IR induces rapid and transient changes within 15 min of the damage, IR does not alter the ratios of most other functional nucleolar protein complexes. The rapid transient decrease of NHEJ proteins in the nucleolus indicates that it may reflect a response to DNA damage.
Although the risk posed by a single living collection is small, the probability of invasion increases with the number of botanic gardens within
a region. Thus, while both the size of living collections and the proportion of non-native species cultivated have declined during the 20th century, this reduction in risk is offset by the 10-fold increase in the number of botanic gardens established worldwide. Unfortunately, botanic gardens rarely implement regional codes of conduct to prevent plant invasions, few have an invasive species policy, Entinostat price and there is limited monitoring of garden escapes. This lack of preparedness is of particular concern given the rapid increase in living collections worldwide since 1950, particularly in South America and Asia, and highlights past patterns of introduction will be a poor guide to determining future invasion risks. Resolver Si los Jardines Botanicos Estan Encaminados a la Conservacion o Si Son una Via para la Invasion de Plantas Un objetivo global de la conservacion SN-38 solubility dmso es entender los medios por los cuales las especies invasoras son introducidas a regiones nuevas. Los jardines botanicos
son una via para la introduccion de plantas invasoras no-nativas, pero no se ha realizado una evaluacion cuantitativa de los riesgos que presentan. Analice datos de las colecciones vivientes de mas de 3000 jardines botanicos a nivel mundial para cuantificar la tendencia temporal de representacion de especies no-nativas, la composicion selleck chemicals relativa de las especies de plantas amenazadas, ornamentales o invasoras,
y la frecuencia con la que los jardines botanicos implementan procedimientos para lidiar con especies invasoras. Mientras que casi todas las especies no-nativas de plantas invasoras a nivel global se encuentran en una o mas colecciones vivientes (99%), menos de un cuarto de las especies amenazadas que aparecen en la lista roja son cultivadas (23%). Incluso cuando son cultivadas, las especies amenazadas individuales se encuentran en pocas colecciones vivientes (7.3), mientras que las especies no-nativas se cultivan en promedio en seis veces mas jardines botanicos (44.3). Como resultado, un jardin botanico podria, en promedio, cultivar cuatro veces el numero de especies no-nativas invasoras (20) que de especies amenazadas que aparecen en la lista roja (5). Aunque el riesgo que presenta una sola coleccion viviente es pequeno, la probabilidad de invasion incrementa con el numero de jardines botanicos dentro de una region. Asi, mientras el tamano de las colecciones vivientes y la proporcion de especies no-nativas que son cultivadas han declinado a lo largo del siglo XX, la reduccion en el riesgo no se presenta debido al incremento diez veces mayor en el numero de jardines botanicos que se establecen a nivel mundial.
“N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is an intracellular protein that is induced under a wide variety of stress and cell growth-regulatory conditions. NDRG1 is up-regulated by cell differentiation signals in various cancer cell lines and suppresses tumor metastasis. Despite its specific role in the molecular cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4D disease, there has been more interest in the gene as a marker of tumor progression and enhancer of cellular differentiation. Because it is strongly up-regulated under hypoxic conditions, and this condition is prevalent in solid tumors, its regulation is somewhat complex, governed by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)- and p53-dependent pathways,
as well as its namesake, neuroblastoma-derived myelocytomatosis, and probably many other factors, at the transcriptional and selleck compound translational levels, and through mRNA stability. We survey the data for clues to theNDRG1 gene’s mechanism and for indications that the NDRG1 gene may be an efficient diagnostic tool and therapy in many types of cancers.”
“We CYT387 concentration present a method to monitor a patient and the equipment in a radiotherapy
treatment room, by exploiting the information in the treatment plan, enriched with other elements such as visual, geometric, and “semantic” information. Using all these information items, and a generic model, a virtual environment of the scene is created, with maximum precision. The images resulting from video sequences with several cameras are also used to confront the filmed information on the scene MX69 research buy and its numerical representation. The method is based on the features of the scene elements, and on a fuzzy formalism. The feasibility of the method is being quantitatively evaluated in the absence of treatment, to be further exploited in a module for external control by video in real conditions.”
“BACKGROUND: The significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood and of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) in patients with early stage breast cancer is unclear. In this study, the authors investigated
the occurrence of CTCs and DTCs in women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated the correlation of their presence with other prognostic markers. METHODS: Blood and BM aspirations were collected at the time of primary breast surgery. CTCs were detected by using the Cell Search assay, and DTCs were detected by immunostaining BM aspirates for pancytokeratin. The presence of CTCs and DTCs was correlated with tumor classification (T1 vs T2), tumor histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and lymph node (LN) status. RESULTS: Of 92 patients who were included in the study, 49 had T1 tumors, and 43 had T2 tumors. CTCs were detected in 31% of patients, and DTCs were detected in 27% of patients.
This article introduces competing risks data and critically reviews the widely used statistical methods for estimation and modelling of the basic (estimable) quantities of interest. We discuss the increasingly popular Fine and Gray model for subdistribution hazard of interest, which can be readily fitted using standard software under the assumption
of administrative censoring. We present a simulation study, which explores the robustness of inference for the subdistribution hazard to the assumption of administrative censoring. This shows a range of scenarios within which the strictly incorrect assumption of administrative censoring has a relatively small effect on parameter estimates and confidence interval coverage. The methods are illustrated using data from HIV-I seropositive patients from the collaborative SIS3 TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor multicentre study CASCADE Tipifarnib solubility dmso (Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe).”
“This review focuses on aspects of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) in which it differs importantly from other forms of non-small-cell lung cancer. BAC is a form of adenocarcinoma with unique
clinical, radiological, and epidemiological features. With the notable exception of a lower likelihood of a positive positron-emission tomographic (PET) scan in BAC, staging, diagnosis, and treatment are largely the same as for other histological subtypes of lung cancer. However, additional treatment options exist that are equivalent, if not more effective, for many patients with BAC. The diagnosis of BAC should be reserved for Epigenetic inhibitors high throughput screening those tumors meeting the 1999/2004 criteria set forth by the World Health Organization. Revised nomenclature proposed by an expert consensus panel may change how this disease is viewed. Additional clinical trials are needed on patients with BAC, employing strict definitions and enrollment criteria to allow the results to be applied to appropriate patient populations.”
X-ray computed tomography (CT) reveals the phoretic deutonymph of a fossil astigmatid mite (Acariformes: Astigmata) attached to a spider’s carapace (Araneae: Dysderidae) in Eocene (44-49 Myr ago) Baltic amber. Details of appendages and a sucker plate were resolved, and the resulting three-dimensional model demonstrates the potential of tomography to recover morphological characters of systematic significance from even the tiniest amber inclusions without the need for a synchrotron. Astigmatids have an extremely sparse palaeontological record. We confirm one of the few convincing fossils, potentially the oldest record of Histiostomatidae. At 176 mm long, we believe this to be the smallest arthropod in amber to be CT-scanned as a complete body fossil, extending the boundaries for what can be recovered using this technique. We also demonstrate a minimum age for the evolution of phoretic behaviour among their deutonymphs, an ecological trait used by extant species to disperse into favourable environments.