Nanoparticles reveal completely new or improved properties based on specific characteristics such as size, distribution and morphology, P505-15 if compared with larger particles of the bulk material they are made of . Since the absorption of minerals by the plant is non-selective, some of the metal ions in conjunction with anions may cause toxicity if they exceed the tolerance limit of the plant. When the nanoparticles are absorbed, they are subsequently translocated and accumulated in different parts of the plants NVP-BSK805 order forming complex with carrier proteins. It is, however, not yet clear
as to how some plant species select certain nanoparticles and reject others. If they are larger than the pore of root, they get accumulated at the surface, and when they are smaller, they get absorbed and transported to other parts of the plants. It is the present requirement to produce more food crops from the extant resources. Genetically modified crops are a way to substantially produce better food grain, but it has some implications . The production of food crop from engineered nanoparticle is another alternative. A wide range of metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3, FeO, Fe2O3, etc.), fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, etc. have an increasing range of applications (Figure 1) for different purposes  and make their way easily in the environment
[24, 25]. Their potential adverse effects on the environment and human health are being subjected to intense debate . Although nanoparticles, whether natural or synthetic, are being used in every sphere Torin 1 of life, their Pyruvate dehydrogenase exploitation in agriculture is limited. Studies have been directed towards seed germination, root elongation, foliar growth and seed and crop development . The use of nanoparticles without knowing the toxic effect on the plant may sometimes cause mutation, which may be very damaging to both plants and ecosystem. Nanoparticles
when sprayed or inoculated will penetrate and transported to various parts of the plant. Some nanoparticles are stored in extracellular space and some within the cell. Some plants reject the nanoparticles and some accept or store them (Figure 2). Inadvertent use of rare and precious metal nanoparticles generally does not show any positive effect on the plant except for their storage and blocking the passage of vessels [28–30]. The process of nanoparticle accumulation in plants may be used to clean up nanoparticle contamination and extraction of metal from such plants. The extraction of metal from such plants is called phytomining or phytoextraction [6, 31, 32]. An et al.  have reported an increase in ascorbate and chlorophyll contents in leaves of asparagus treated with silver nanoparticles. Likewise, soybean treated with nano-iron showed increased weight of beans .