1% (v/v) Tween 20; pH 7 6) containing 5% skim milk The membrane

1% (v/v) Tween 20; pH 7.6) containing 5% skim milk. The membranes were

washed in TBST and incubated with guinea pig anti-VAChT (AB1588, Millipore), anti-ChAT (AP144P, Millipore), or anti-CHT (AB5966, Millipore) antibodies overnight at 4°C. Following successive washing with TBST, the membranes were incubated with the appropriate horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody. Immunoreactive signals were detected using the SuperSignal West Dura enhanced chemiluminescence system (Pierce, Rockford, IL). To quantify the relative amount of protein expression, blots were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stripped and reprobed with antibodies against GAPDH (H86504M, Meridian Life Science, Memphis, TN) for 1 h followed by a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody for an additional hour. Signal intensities were analyzed using GeneTools software (Syngene, Frederick, MD) and normalized to GAPDH. The relative amount of VAChT, ChAT, and CHT protein in B6eGFPChAT tissue homogenates was expressed as a percent of protein present in B6 control tissue. Mean normalized densitometry values were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analyzed by Student’s Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical t-test to compare genotypes. Spontaneous learn more activity and indirect calorimetry B6eGFPChAT (N = 8) and B6 (N = 8) mice were placed in comprehensive lab animal monitoring system (CLAMS) metabolic cages (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH). These metabolic chambers monitor activity and metabolic performance.

Following entry into the cages, the mice were allowed to acclimatize to the environment for 14–17 h prior to data collection. High-resolution real time activity data along with metabolic measurements collected every 10 min were acquired during the 12 h light cycle Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (0700 and 1900 h) and 12 h dark cycle (1900 and 0700 h). The metabolic measurements included the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical volume of carbon dioxide produced (VCO2), the volume of oxygen consumed (VO2), the respiration exchange

ratio (RER = VCO2/VO2), and the caloric (heat) value (([(3.815 + 1.232 × RER) × VO2] × 1000)/mouse weight). Sleep analysis was conducted using the Oxymax software (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH) as previously described and validated (Pack et al. 2007). The sleep threshold was set to 180 sec of ≤10 activity counts. The data are represented in ~30 min intervals and analyzed using repeated measures two-way heptaminol analysis of variance (ANOVA) or as the mean values over each 12 h period and analyzed using Student’s t-test. Dark/light box Each mouse was placed into an automated activity monitor (Accuscan Instruments, Inc., Columbus, OH) that was separated into an enclosed dark region (20 × 40 cm) and an open light region (20 × 40 cm). The two regions were separated by an opening (10 × 15 cm) where mice were placed facing the dark region and allowed to explore for 10 min between 2000 and 2200 h. Activity (converted from infrared beam breaks to cm) in each of the two regions along with transitions between the regions were measured over the trial duration.

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