2) in ZM106 were 1) both the wild type and mutant SE strains indu

2) in ZM106 were 1) both the wild type and mutant SE strains induced similar degrees of COEC apoptosis; 2) ZM103 (sipA) carrying the same chloramphenicol

resistance cassette displayed a wild type phenotype in terms of modulating AvBD expression; and 3) introduction of the cloned pipB gene into ZM106 reduced the strain’s ability to induce AvBD expression. One possible explanation for the elevated induction of AvBDs by ZM106 (pipB) may be that PipB interferes with one or more steps of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of AvBD genes, such as PAMP-TLR-NFkB/MAPK-AvBD promoter. At the present time, the role of pipB in the pathogenesis of salmonellosis is not well understood. Limited data indicates that pipB is a chicken host-specific this website LY3023414 colonization CHIR-99021 molecular weight factor of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium [36]. PipB is targeted to detergent-resistant microdomains of intracellular membranes, which lead to the speculation of a possible interaction between PipB

and host cell signaling molecules [37]. Our recent investigation found that pipB is required by SE to invade COEC and survive within peripheral blood lymphocyte derived monocytes [25]. Although the mechanism of action remains to be elucidated, data from the present study reveals a pipB-mediated inhibition of AvBD expression in SE-infected COEC, another strategy used by SE to weaken host innate immunity in the oviduct epithelium of laying hens. However, the biological significance of PipB-mediated alterations in AvBD expression should be further evaluated using in vivo infection models. Conclusion Data from study indicates that the oviduct epithelial cells of laying hens constitutively express most AvBDs, except AvBD2 and AvBD6-8, at moderate to high levels in comparison to the expression of β-actin. SE briefly Florfenicol suppresses the transcription

of several constitutively and highly expressed AvBDs and stimulates the expression of minimally expressed AvBDs in COEC. PipB, a T3SS-2 effector protein, plays a role in repressing AvBD genes during SE invasion of COEC. Methods Bacterial strains and growth conditions A spontaneous nalidixic acid-resistant strain of SE, ZM 100 (wt), and its isogenic mutants, ZM103 (sipA) and ZM106 (pipB) were grown aerobically in tryptic soy agar or broth supplemented with nalidixic acid at a concentration of 50 μg/ml at 37°C [25]. To prepare the inoculum, 50 μl of an overnight culture of each bacterial strain was diluted into 5 ml of fresh TSB and incubated aerobically for 4 hours (h) at 37°C. Cultures of SE at the logarithmic phase of growth were harvested by centrifugation at 1,500 × g for 15 min and re-suspended in fresh HBSS without antibiotics. The number of bacteria in each culture was determined by measuring the density at OD600 and confirmed by subsequent CFU enumerations. Cell culture and culture condition Primary chicken oviduct epithelia cells (COEC) were prepared similarly to those described previously [32].

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