, 2009; Stübs et al , 2009), and the antigenic nature of ACGal ha

, 2009; Stübs et al., 2009), and the antigenic nature of ACGal has been confirmed by chemical synthesis (Stübs et al., 2010). These data imply that ACGal could improve serodiagnostics,

and may act as a basis for vaccine development. However, to date, it is unclear whether detection of or vaccination with ACGal would encompass LD-causing genospecies other than B. burgdorferi Obeticholic Acid nmr sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. garinii. On the other hand, the function of ACGal in B. burgdorferi is not elucidated, and the report that acylated cholesteryl α-d-glucosides in Helicobacter pylori are associated with immune evasion (Wunder et al., 2006) raises the question of whether ACGal are involved in the pathogenesis of LD. Therefore, in this study, we wanted to determine whether ACGal is a feature of other genospecies Selleckchem RO4929097 of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, including those associated with all stages of LD as well as B. spielmanii as an agent of localized LD. The following Borrelia strains were grown under microaerophilic conditions in 9 mL of BSK-H medium at 33 °C as described previously (Preac-Mursic et al., 1986): B. burgdorferi s.s.

strain B31, B. afzelii PKo, B. bavariensis PBi, B. garinii A and TN, B. spielmanii PSig II, B. bissettii DN 127, B. lusitaniae Poti B2 and Poti B3, B. valaisiana VS 116 and UK, B. japonica HO 14, B. hermsii HS 1. The methods and materials for harvesting and extraction of bacteria have been described in detail earlier. In brief, the cells were harvested, lyophilized, and disintegrated using an ultrasonic rod and the lipids were extracted by a Folch extraction (Folch et al., 1957). The total lipids were dissolved and spotted in about equal amounts on a thin-layer chromatogram (TLC). Synthetic ACGal was applied as a reference (Stübs 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase et al., 2010). The chromatography was performed in chloroform/methanol 85 : 15 v/v.

The lipids were visualized on the TLC by molybdenum stain. The dried TLC was immersed in buffer and blotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane using a hot iron. The membrane was blocked with a skim milk/phosphate-buffered saline solution and incubated for 13 h at 4 °C with a 1 : 750 diluted serum of LD patients in the late stage. The membrane was incubated for 1.5 h at room temperature with a 1 : 50 000 dilution of a secondary, horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgG antibody. The serum antibody binding was detected using enzymatic chemoluminescence to expose and subsequently develop X-ray films. Dot blots and Borrelia lysates were generated as described previously (Stübs et al., 2010): ACGal, Borrelia lysate and total lipids were spotted on PVDF membranes and incubated with pooled sera (n=4) from patients diagnosed with LD, syphilis as well as leptospirosis at 4 °C for 15 h. Detection with secondary antibodies was performed via chemoluminescence. The stained TLC (Fig. 1a) revealed that all analyzed Borrelia genospecies exhibited a similar lipid pattern.

Comments are closed.