[29] These results led to the hypothesis that DM functions as a g

[29] These results led to the hypothesis that DM functions as a general purpose peptide exchange catalyst.[30] However, experiments examining the activity

of DM during peptide loading in vivo suggested that DM also has the ability to act as an MHCII-specific chaperone by stabilizing empty MHCII under low pH conditions.[31-33] In contrast to the expected MK-8669 1 : 1 ratio, quantitative immunoblot analysis demonstrates a 5 : 1 molar ratio of MHCII to DM, which is more consistent with a catalytic role for DM than simply chaperone-like.[34] In the attempt to reconcile DM’s catalytic activity on the dissociation of the bound peptide with the one facilitating loading of peptide into the MHCII groove, many groups began to investigate the mechanism by which DM molecules interact with MHCII. Unfortunately the crystal structures of DM or the murine H2-M [35] did not reveal any obvious structural features that SAHA HDAC research buy might explain peptide exchange activity for either molecule. Clearly, an association of DM to DR appeared to be required, as DM/MHCII complexes could be immunoprecipitated from solubilized cells under low pH conditions.[36] Indeed, the altered conformations of both MHCII and DM induced by low pH may favour binding.[37] To date,

any attempt to co-crystallize MHCII/DM complexes has failed, but it now appears likely that the lateral face of the MHCII molecule near the N-terminus of the bound peptide is the site of interaction (Fig. 1).[38-40] The structural studies of the DM/MHCII interaction have not been sufficient Protirelin to outline a conclusive mechanism of DM activity. Several works have been published

in which the focus was on determining the characteristics that make a pMHCII complex susceptible to DM-mediated peptide release. The initial hypothesis postulated that the intrinsic dissociation rate of the complex was directly related to its susceptibility to DM-mediated exchange, and the factor by which the DM-catalysed rate constant for peptide release exceeded the rate constant of the uncatalysed reaction was indicated as j factor.[29] The observation that the j factor was constant for complexes with different off-rates suggested that DM promotes peptide release by destabilizing sequence-independent interactions, such as the H-bond network. Indeed, several works have indicated the H-bond network as a viable target of DM activity, possibly promoting or stabilizing a form of the MHCII in which one or more of the H-bonds from the peptide main chain to the MHCII are broken.[41, 42] In particular, it was proposed that DM specifically targets the H-bond formed by the conserved histidine at position β81 in MHCII molecules.

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