Even though smallpox has been eradicated there are two major conc

Even though smallpox has been eradicated there are two major concerns related to poxviruses, one of which is the possibility of usage of variola as a bioterrorism agent and the other being cross-species related infections, e.g., monkeypox and cowpox virus infection of humans [9], [10] and [11], requiring further understanding

of the pathogenesis of this complex group of viruses. Complement activation either through the alternative pathway or through the classical pathway plays a pivotal role in the neutralization PD0325901 nmr of poxviruses. Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic poxvirus, has two major forms: the extracellular enveloped (EV) and the intracellular mature virus (MV). Among these, the EV form is more resistant to neutralization by antibodies, but this is reversed in the presence of complement [12]. This is further highlighted by the observation

that both in vitro and in vivo neutralization of the EV form could be achieved with antibodies targeted against B5R, an EV form-specific protein, Fulvestrant in vivo in the presence of complement [13]. These studies besides emphasizing the role of antigen specific antibodies also identify the pivotal role complement plays in targeting and neutralizing poxviruses. Viruses override the complement system by developing various mechanisms to mask themselves against the host’s complement assault [14], [15], [16] and [17]. Poxviruses in particular, have been shown to encode mimics of human regulator of complement activation (RCA) proteins to target complement, besides the additional strategy of recruitment of human RCAs [18], [19], [20] and [21]. Vaccinia and variola viruses, the two important members of the genus Orthopoxvirus [22] and [23], encode soluble RCA homologs named vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) and smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes (SPICE), respectively [24] and [25]. Both effectively inhibit complement, with SPICE

being more human specific than VCP [25] and [26]. Other members of the pox family, like cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and ectromelia, also encode functional RCA mimics with marked identity among the homologs, except monkeypox virus strains, which have been shown to either lack or have Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase a truncated form of the homolog [20], [27], [28], [29], [30] and [31]. VCP is entirely formed by four complement control protein (CCP) domains separated by short linkers, which is a characteristic of the RCA proteins [32], [33] and [34] and exists either as a secreted or a cell associated form [24] and [35]. Functional studies revealed that it inhibits the complement-mediated neutralization of both the infectious forms of VACV i.e., MV as well as EV [36] and [37]. Notably, VCP has been shown to be involved in modulating the humoral and T cell mediated responses to VACV infection [38].

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