However, gene expression profiling showed that it expressed both

However, gene expression profiling showed that it expressed both epithelial and melanocytic markers, and as such, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) now considers it to be a melanoma cell line (Garraway et al., 2005). Regardless of its origin, the MDA-MB-435 cell line is an aggressive cell line that can be used as a model to study invasion in vitro ( Hulit et al., 2007). Biflorin has been shown to be cytotoxic to cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo ( Vasconcellos et al., 2005, Vasconcellos et al., 2007, Vasconcellos et al., 2011 and Vasconcellos et al., 2010). Recently, Vasconcellos et al. (2011) described that biflorin inhibits several

melanoma cell lines in vitro. Moreover, biflorin inhibited DNA synthesis, leading to the apoptosis of B16, a murine melanoma cell line ( Vasconcellos et al., 2011). Biflorin BIBW2992 research buy also increased survival rates and inhibited tumor Tanespimycin solubility dmso growth in an in vivo melanoma B16 model ( Vasconcellos et al., 2011). These results supported gaining an understanding of the mechanisms behind biflorin activity in cancer cells. Here, we described that biflorin inhibits MDA-MB-435 cell

invasion in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The MDA-MB-435 cell line expresses genes associated with both breast cancer and melanoma. For this reason, the authors conducted the experiments on normal cell lines of both breast and melanocyteorigin, MCF-10A and Melan-A, respectively. However, at all concentrations tested, biflorin MG-132 cost had no effect on the normal cell lines. Vasconcellos et al. (2010) demonstrated that at lower concentrations, biflorin hadsignificant antioxidant and protective effects against cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and intracellular lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 in yeast and normal mammalian cells. This result could be attributed to its hydroxyl radical-scavenging property and corroborated our findings. However, at higher concentrations, biflorin was cytotoxic and genotoxic. Many changes in gene expression and protein

functions occur during tumor progression. Alterations in cell–cell and cell-matrix adhesion seem to have a central role in facilitating the migration, invasion and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells (Yilmaz and Christofori, 2010). Multiple cell adhesion molecules, such as E- and N-cadherin, which are calcium-dependent cells adhesion molecules that mediate homophilic cell–cell adhesion, have been reported to play roles in melanoma progression. The cadherin switch from E-cadherin to N-cadherin results in the disassociation of melanoma cells and promotes the invasion of melanoma cells (Hsu et al., 2000). The pro-invasive action of N-cadherin persisted even in the presence of E-cadherin, suggesting that N-cadherin has a dominant effect over the normally tumor-suppressive E-cadherin, (Nieman et al., 1999 and Hazan et al., 2000).

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