However, recent experimental work has implicated tissue plasminog

However, recent experimental work has implicated tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema.


reviewed the records of all patients with IVH caused by primary supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent external ventricular drainage without surgical evacuation between January 2001 and June 2008. Of these 30 patients, we identified 13 who received IT-tPA. The remaining 17 patients served as controls. Hemorrhage, edema volume, and IVH score were determined on admission and by follow-up computed tomographic BI-D1870 mw scans for 96 hours after admission. Discharge outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the treatment and controls in terms of age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Graeb and LeRoux IVH scores, or intracerebral hemorrhage volume on admission. IT-tPA resulted in more rapid clearance of IVH as determined

by the 96-hour decrease in both the Graeb IVH score (tPA, 3.00 +/- .55; control, 1.00 +/- 0.57; P = .05) and the LeRoux IVH score (tPA, 6.2 +/- 0.80; control, 2.25 +/- 1.32; P = .05). Patients treated with IT-tPA demonstrated significantly larger peak ratios of edema to intracerebral hemorrhage buy Tubastatin A volume (1.24 +/- 0.14 vs 0.70 +/- 0.08 in controls; P = .002). Additionally, increased rates of sterile meningitis PDK3 (46% vs 12%; P = .049) and a trend toward shunt dependence (38% vs 6%; P = .06) were observed in the tPA cohort. Nevertheless, no significant differences in outcome at discharge or length of hospital stay were observed between cohorts.

CONCLUSION: Although IT-tPA hastens the resolution of IVH, it may worsen perihematomal edema formation. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm these findings and to determine whether outcome is adversely affected by IT-tPA administration.”

Although nocturnal enuresis is common in children, its etiology is multifactorial and not fully understood. We evaluated potential risk factors for presence and severity of nocturnal enuresis.

Materials and Methods: A validated, reproducible questionnaire was distributed to 8,230 school children in Sydney, Australia. Nocturnal enuresis was defined as any wetting in the previous month and categorized as mild (1 to 6 nights), moderate (7 or more nights but less than nightly) or severe (nightly).

Results: Parents of 2,856 children (mean +/- SD age 7.3 +/- 1.3 years) completed the questionnaire (response rate 35%). Overall prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.2%, with 12.3% of patients having mild, 2.5% moderate and 3.6% severe enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed that daytime incontinence (OR 4.8, 95% Cl 2.9 to 7.9), encopresis (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.4), bladder dysfunction (OR 3.6, 95% Cl 2.4 to 5.3) and male gender (OR 2.0, 95% Cl 1.3 to 3.

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