In women with a VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL it is unlikely that the type of instrument used will affect the MTCT and thus the one the operator feels is most appropriate should be used as in the non-HIV population (and following national guidance ). The importance of the use of ART in the PMTCT of HIV is clear and undisputed. Good quality studies to determine the remaining contribution of obstetric events and interventions to MTCT in the setting of a fully suppressed HIV VL have not Selleckchem TSA HDAC been performed and are unlikely to be performed in the near future.
HIV DNA  and HIV RNA  in cervicovaginal lavage have been identified as independent transmission risk factors. Large cohort studies from the UK, Ireland and France have concluded there is no significant difference in MTCT in women with an undetectable VL when comparing those who have a planned vaginal delivery and those who have a PLCS. These studies provide some reassurance with regard to
concerns raised about possible discordance between plasma and genital tract VL that have been reported in patients with an undetectable VL on HAART [,,]. The clinical significance of this phenomenon is not clear and further research is warranted. Furthermore, there are reassuring results from the limited studies that have examined the effect on MTCT of amniocentesis and length of time of ROMs in women on HAART and in those with a VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL. An association between MTCT and use of instrumental delivery, amniotomy and episiotomy is not supported by data from the pre-HAART era and there is a lack of data from the HAART era. Therefore,
Ibrutinib clinical trial while acknowledging the potential for discordance between the plasma and genital tract VL, the Writing Group felt that there was no compelling evidence to support the continued avoidance of these procedures as well as induction of labour in women on HAART for whom a vaginal delivery had been recommended based on VL. The data regarding fetal blood sampling and use of second scalp electrodes also originate from the pre-HAART era and have yielded conflicting results. The Writing Group acknowledges a lack of data from the HAART era, but concluded that it is unlikely that use of fetal scalp electrodes or fetal blood sampling confers increased risk of transmission in a woman with an undetectable VL although this cannot be proven from the current evidence. Electronic fetal monitoring should be performed according to national guidelines . HIV infection per se is not an indication for continuous fetal monitoring, as there is no increased risk of intrapartum hypoxia or sepsis. If the woman has no other risk factors, she can be managed by midwives either in a midwifery-led unit or at home. She will need to continue with her HAART through labour and adequate provision needs to be made for examination and testing of the newborn and dispensing of medication to the newborn in a timely fashion. 7.2.