Moreover, photoreduction activity of V, N co-doped TNAs was enhan

Moreover, photoreduction activity of V, N co-doped TNAs was enhanced and then decreased with the increase of doping content of vanadium and nitrogen. VN3 sample had the highest methane yield

of 64.5 ppm h−1 cm−2. For comparison, reference reactions without catalysts or light irradiation were performed with other conditions being kept unchanged. All results indicated that there was almost no methane production when the experiment was carried out in the absence of catalysts or irradiation. We also investigated the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the photocatalytic activity. VN0 sample was obtained Geneticin by the hydrothermal treatment of N-TiO2 in pure water and used as a photocatalyst. A slightly enhanced photocatalytic activity was found for VN0 sample as shown in Figure  6. This hydrothermal-assisted photocatalytic

enhancement results are also confirmed by some researchers [28, 29]. All results indicate that photoexcited process of V, N co-doped TNAs is essential in photoreduction process of CO2. However, for VN5 sample, the reduction activity is the lowest one because a further increase in the vanadium content would result in the aggregation of dopant nanoparticles, fast recombination of hole and electron pairs, and excess oxygen CP673451 datasheet vacancies and Ti3+ defects state induced by nitrogen doping also served as recombination centers [30]. Figure 6 △CH 4 concentration dependence on irradiation time (a) and production rate of CH 4 (b) for all catalysts under UV irradiation. The photoreduction reaction of CO2 over VN3 sample was also repeated to check the durability of photocatalyst. Figure  7 shows the CH4 formation by VN3 sample for three times. After each cycle (6 h irradiation), the reaction vessel was degassed, then CO2 and water vapor was introduced into it again. The photocatalytic activity could be restored after three cycles. In each cycle, the initial CH4 evolution rate was buy Peptide 17 recovered, and there was no CH4 formation evolved when the light was off. The above durability results indicate that the V, N co-doped TNAs were stable under the

present experimental conditions during the long irradiation time. Figure 7 The cycle experiment for CO 2 photoreduction into CH 4 on the surface of VN3 sample. Photocatalytic Temsirolimus chemical structure reduction mechanism When TNAs were radiated by the light with photon energy higher or equal to the band gaps of TiO2, more electrons and holes induced by V and N co-doping lead to the reduction of CO2 successfully. Previous studies revealed the trapping of the excited electron and hole by oxygen vacancy and doped nitrogen respectively reduced the recombination rate. The presence of nitrogen dopants was considered to reduce the formation energy of oxygen vacancies [31]. At the same time, the existence of O vacancies stabilized the N impurities [32].

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