Results: FEV1 and FVC were slightly higher, and PEF was lower com

Results: FEV1 and FVC were slightly higher, and PEF was lower compared to recently published equations. Importantly, forced expiratory flow rates at middle and low lung volume, as putative indicators of small airway disease, were in good agreement with recent data, especially for older age. Conclusion: Our study provides up-to-date reference equations for all major indices of flow-volume curves in middle and advanced age in a South German population. The small deviations from published equations indicate

that there might be some regional differences of lung function within the Caucasian population of advanced age in Europe. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Li-Fraumeni syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder first reported by Drs Li and Fraumeni in 1969. Malkin Selleckchem LDK378 was the first to describe a germline this website mutation

as an underlying defect of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Cancer risk in mutation carriers has been estimated to be 50% by age 40 and 90% by age 60. Children of affected parents have an approximate 50% risk of inheriting the familial mutation. Functional assays have been established that allow for easy genetic testing for TP53 mutation. Treatment goals center on early detection and surgical resection of affected organ. Targeted therapy for the TP53 gene may hold promise for the future.”
“Background: Since robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was introduced, different modifications in the technique have been described to improve cancer control and minimize the possibility of erectile dysfunction and incontinence.


We reviewed the recent English literature on specific topics including when to preserve the neurovascular bundle (NVB), and we describe techniques to diminish the rate of positive margins and CP-673451 concentration to preserve continence and potency.

Results: Identifying predictor factors of local advanced disease helps in deciding when to preserve the NVB without compromising cancer control. Techniques to decrease the positive margins based on experience and modifications of the apical dissection are reviewed. Minimal disruption or reconstruction of the anatomic structures of the periprostatic tissues helps to maintain continence. Different degrees of NVB preservation can be performed based on the characteristics of the cancer. Cautery-free techniques and other modifications in the dissection to minimize the NVB injury are also discussed.

Conclusions: The understanding of the predictor factors of local advanced disease, together with modifications in the technique, helps to not only achieve cancer control but also improve quality of life after robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

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