There were a handful of articles (6) reporting on studies investi

There were a handful of articles (6) reporting on studies investigating the fidelity of lay counselling

in routine care [26], [35], [36], [37] and [38]. There were three articles reporting on studies which reviewed existing services provided by lay counsellors [33], [39] and [40], two which focused on exploring the impact of organizational issues on the functioning learn more of lay counsellors [41] and [42] and one assessing the reliability of using lay counsellors to administer mental health screening [43]. A number of studies evaluated the outcomes of using lay counsellors to provide risk reduction counselling. These include five randomized control trials (RCTs) [44], [45], [46], [47] and [48] and two feasibility cohort studies [49] and [50]. These studies provide evidence that under controlled conditions

with adequate training and supervision, lay counsellor behaviour change counselling interventions using various adaptions of the information- motivation-behavioural skills (IMB) model can reduce HIV-risk behaviours including unprotected sex [44] and [48][45], [46], [47] and [49] alcohol use before sex [45], [49] and [50], number of sexual partners [45], [47], [49] and [50]; and transactional sex [50]. These studies covered high HIV risk groups (e.g., STI Clinics and shebeens/taverns) CHIR-99021 cost [44], [45], [46] and [47] as well as in HIV infected [48] and [49] and uninfected patients attending HCT sites [50]. There was one multi-centre cohort study of a community adherence support programme provided by patient advocates which showed improved adherence Dichloromethane dehalogenase in those receiving the intervention [51]. No effectiveness trials of lay counsellor delivered behaviour change counselling offered as part of routine counselling on reduced risk behaviour or improved adherence could be found. There was one non-randomized control study which investigated the use of lay counsellors to deliver a group-based psychosocial intervention using the principles of Interpersonal Therapy which demonstrated promising findings and was well received by the participants [52]. A number of studies

showed the fidelity of lay counsellor interventions delivered under routine circumstances to be sub-optimal. Two studies found that lay counsellors trained in a client centred non-directive approach did not adhere to this approach, with counselling provided characterized by advice giving, directiveness, control and confrontation [37] and [38]. Four studies of counsellors trained in motivational interviewing found low fidelity to the model when incorporated into routine care [26], [35], [36] and [53], with the majority of lay counsellors not able to achieve entry level MI competency following training and at one year follow-up [26]. Two studies noted wide variation in the training of lay counsellors [32] and [39], largely provided by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

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