These results indicate that, for a proper MgATP up-regulation of

These results indicate that, for a proper MgATP up-regulation of NCX1, the enzyme responsible for PtdIns-4,5P2 synthesis must be (i) functionally competent and (ii) set in the NCX1 microenvironment closely associated to the exchanger. This kind of supramolecular structure is needed to optimize binding of the newly synthesized PtdIns-4,5P2 to its target region in the exchanger protein. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: The antifungal effect selleck of Pimpinella anisum (anise), Peumus boldus (boldus), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Origanum vulgare (oregano)

and Minthosthachys verticillata (peperina) essential oils against Aspergillus section Flavi (two isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus and two isolates of Aspergillus flavus)

was evaluated in maize meal extract agar at 0.982 and 0.955 water activities, at 25 degrees C.\n\nMethods SYN-117 in vivo and Results: The percentage of germination, germ-tube elongation rate, growth rate and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation at different essential oils concentrations were evaluated. Anise and boldus essential oils were the most inhibitory at 500 mg kg(-1) to all growth parameters of the fungus. These essential oils inhibited the percentage of germination, germ-tube elongation rate and fungal growth. AFB(1) accumulation was completely inhibited by anise, boldus and oregano essential oils. Peperina and peppermint essential oils inhibited AFB(1) production by 85-90% in all concentrations assayed.\n\nConclusions: Anise and boldus essential oils could be considered as effective fungitoxicans for Aspergillus section flavi.\n\nSignificance and Impact of the Study: Our results suggest that these phytochemical compounds could be used alone or in conjunction with other substances to control the presence of aflatoxigenic

fungi in stored maize.”
“Flaxseed (FS) reduces breast tumorigenesis and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in postmenopausal patients and animal models. The primary treatment for HER2-overexpressing tumors is trastuzumab (TRAS). FS WZB117 oil enhances TRAS effectiveness in athymic mice but the FS effect is unknown and was therefore determined. Athymic mice with established BT-474 tumors were fed the basal diet (control), or 10% FS diet, with or without TRAS (2.5mg/kg) treatment for 5 wk. After 2 wk, TRAS and FS reduced tumor size with a trend for an FS x TRAS interaction; however, after 5 wk, only TRAS reduced tumor size and increased tumor apoptosis. FS did not further improve TRAS effect but increased overall survival. TRAS reduced signaling biomarkers [phosphorylated HER2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins; Akt1, Akt2, MAPK, and estrogen receptor- mRNA], FS reduced phosphorylated-Akt1 protein, and FS x TRAS interactions were seen for HER2 mRNA and phosphorylated-Akt1 protein. FS, with and without TRAS, increased tumor n-3 PUFA levels and serum lignans indicating potential roles in the observed effect.

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