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“Climatic variability and unpredictability  affect the distribution and abundance of resources and the timing and duration of breeding opportunities. In vertebrates, climatic variability selects for enhanced cognition when organisms compensate for environmental changes through learning and innovation [2-5]. This hypothesis is supported by larger brain sizes , higher foraging
innovation rates [7-9], higher reproductive flexibility [10-12], and higher sociality  in species living in more variable climates. EPZ-6438 molecular weight Male songbirds sing to attract females and repel rivals . Given the reliance of these displays on learning and innovation, we hypothesized that they could also be affected by climatic patterns. Here we show that in the mockingbird family (Aves: Mimidae), species subject to more variable and unpredictable climates have more elaborate song displays. We discuss two potential mechanisms for this result, selleck inhibitor both of which acknowledge that the complexity of song displays is largely driven by sexual
selection [15, 16]. First, stronger selection in more variable and unpredictable climates could lead to the elaboration of signals of quality [14, 17-20]. Alternatively, selection for enhanced learning and innovation in more variable and unpredictable climates might lead to the evolution of signals of intelligence in the context of mate attraction [14, 21-23].”
“In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are usually administered in unit doses partitioned from multi-dose vials. The partitioning typically takes place in a radiopharmacy, depending on local practice. Automatic, as opposed to manual, partitioning and administration should reduce radiation exposure of the personnel involved, improve the accuracy of the administration and mitigate contamination. This study set out to verify and validate the F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) administration procedure performed using Intego (TM) (MEDRAD, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA), a combined dispenser and injector system. We considered maintenance of sterility
and the system’s potential to improve, with respect to the manual procedure, the accuracy of net administered F-18-FDG radioactivity Liproxstatin-1 cell line in patients and the radiation protection of operators.\n\nA media-fill procedure was used to assess whether sterility is maintained during use of the Intego (TM) system. Simulating a typical working day’s setup and use of the system, we investigated the accuracy of the net administered F-18-FDG activity obtained with Intego (TM) versus the manual dose delivery system. We also measured personnel radiation exposure during use of Intego (TM) and during manual administration and recorded and compared environmental doses in the two conditions.\n\nThe radiopharmaceutical remained sterile in all the tests performed.