We speculate that practice-related gray matter signal changes in

We speculate that practice-related gray matter signal changes in MRI are primarily related to synaptic remodeling within specific processing areas.”
“The ability of primate embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into dopamine (DA)-synthesizing neurons has raised hopes of creating novel cell therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD). As the primary

purpose of cell transplantation in PD is restoration of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum, in vivo assessment of DA function after grafting is necessary to achieve better therapeutic effects. A chronic model of PD was produced in two cynomolgus monkeys (M-1 and M-2) by systemic administration CH5424802 mouse of neurotoxin. Neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from cynomolgus ES cells were implanted unilaterally

in the putamen. To evaluate DA-specific functions, we used multiple [(11)C]-labeled positron emission tomography Semaxanib (PET) tracers, including [beta-(11)C]L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-[beta-(11)C]DOPA, DA precursor ligand), [(11)C]-2 beta-carbomethoxy3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([(11)C]beta-CFT, DA transporter ligand) and [(11)C]raclopride (D(2) receptor ligand). At 12 weeks after grafting NSCs, PET demonstrated significantly increased uptake of L-[beta-(11)C]DOPA (M-1:41%, M-2:61%) and [(11)C]beta-CFT (M-1:31%, M-2:36%) uptake in the grafted putamen. In addition, methamphetamine challenge in M-2 induced reduced [(11)C]raclopride binding (16%) in the transplanted putamen, suggesting release of DA. These results show that transplantation of NSCs derived from cynomolgus monkey ES cells can restore DA function in the putamen of a primate model of PD. PET with multitracers is useful for functional studies in developing cell-based therapies against PD. Synapse 63:541-548, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the performance of minimal beneficial leisure-time physical activity in the first half of pregnancy according to the criteria of the American College of Sport and Medicine (ACSM) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Material and methods. This was a cross-sectional

study carried out at the Maternal and Neonatal University Hospital in Granada, which services the whole population of the hospital reference area. We studied 1,175 healthy pregnant women aged over 18 years. Information Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil about sociodemographics, lifestyles, obstetric antecedents and anthropometric variables were collected. The amount of leisure-time physical activity was quantified by assigning metabolic equivalents to each activity. The ACSM and ACOG criteria were used to define optimal physical activity in the first half of pregnancy. The frequency of compliance for both criteria was estimated. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to study the factors associated with the recommendations. Results. Only 20.3% (95% confidence interval 15.50-26.10) of the women complied with ACOG criteria.

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