, 2004; Helgeby et al , 2006; Andersen et al , 2007) For tubercu

, 2004; Helgeby et al., 2006; Andersen et al., 2007). For tuberculosis, the strongest Th-1-inducing compound identified to date is unmethylated mycobacterial DNA and the immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides derived from it. Some researchers have used synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants for nasal tuberculosis vaccines, resulting in vigorous Th-1 responses

characterized by CTL activation and IFN-γ secretion over the course of infection (Maeyama et al., 2009). Also, mucosal delivery systems designed to enhance the immune response following mucosal immunization have been evaluated for efficacy in tuberculosis vaccines (Bivas-Benita et al., 2004; Freytag & Clements, 2005). Examples of these delivery systems include antigen-encapsulating microspheres, various liposome formulations, nanoparticles with surface-adsorbed agents, lipophilic ISCOMS selleck Peptide 17 nmr and bacterial products

with known adjuvant properties. Such systems enhance the binding, uptake and half-life of antigens and may help to target the vaccine to mucosal surfaces. In addition, based on their mucoadhesive properties, these viscosity-enhancing delivery systems have been designed to slow mucociliary clearance and prolong contact time between the vaccine compound and the nasal tissue (Sajadi-Tabassi et al., 2008; Coucke et al., 2009). This last concept is particularly important, because nonreplicating, and especially nonparticulate, antigens applied to a mucosal surface must be adjuvanted to induce productive immunity rather than tolerance. Thus, a vaccine with an appropriate adjuvant can induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses, preventing not only infectious disease but also colonization of mucosal surfaces (Davis, 2001). At present, increasing knowledge of the innate immune system, including the identification of ligands and signalling pathways, is

providing a new set of targets for the development of novel adjuvants (Schijns & Degen, 2007; Boog, 2008). Pathways specifically involved in the immune response against complex pathogens such as Mtb Fossariinae are mediated by receptors expressed on the surface of DCs and macrophages. Engagement of these receptors initiates intracellular signalling pathways, resulting in the activation of immune response genes, including those encoding MHC molecules, costimulatory molecules and inflammatory cytokines. One key receptor class is the TLR family, whose ligands are either presented on the surface of Mtb or secreted by the bacterium (Doherty & Andersen, 2005). Mycobacterial TLR ligands include triacylated and diacylated forms of p19, a lipoprotein recognized by TLR 2/1 and TLR 2/6 dimers, respectively.

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