Furthermore, this GAr-mediated function has been linked to its ca

Furthermore, this GAr-mediated function has been linked to its capacity to prevent EBNA1 synthesis14,15 and block proteasomal degradation.16,17 Although the role of the GAr domain on the stability/turnover of EBNA1 has only partially been clarified, it is

now evident that EBNA1 is immunogenic and capable of inducing CD8-mediated cells responses. As EBNA1 is the only antigen expressed in all EBV-associated tumours, and therefore represents an ideal tumour-rejection target for immunotherapy against EBV-associated malignancies, elucidation of the mechanisms by which EBNA1-specific CTLs recognize naturally EBNA1-expressing cells remains crucial.18,19 To explore target cell recognition by EBNA1-specific CTL cultures, CTLs specific for the Protease Inhibitor Library in vitro EBNA1-derived HPVGEADYFEY (HPV), amino acids 407–417, presented by HLA-B35.01 and HLA-B53, were chosen as a model, as recognition of this immunodominant EBV epitope has been documented in the majority of B35-positive, EBV-seropositive donors, and during primary infection.9,20 Herein we demonstrate that the majority PI3K inhibitor of HLA-B35 positive donors do indeed respond to this epitope, thereby confirming the importance of EBNA1 as target of EBV-positive malignancies. We also show that HPV-specific CTLs recognize

and kill LCLs but not Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) cells which, despite possessing proteasomes with much lower chymotryptic and tryptic-like activities than LCLs, were shown to degrade the HPV epitope. Interestingly, a partial sensitivity to HPV-specific CTLs was demonstrated in BL cells treated with proteasome inhibitors. In conclusion, our study suggests that antigen presentation in BL cells may be restored by the use of proteasome inhibitors, making them attractive candidates for inclusion in combined drug regimens against

EBNA1-positive malignancies. Lymphoblastoid cell lines were obtained by infection of lymphocytes from HLA-typed donors with culture supernatants of a B95.8 virus-producing cell line, cultured in the presence of 0.1 μg/ml cyclosporin A (Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, Germany). The LCLs and the BL cell lines (BJAB B95.8 and Jijoye) were maintained in RPMI-1640 supplemented with Erlotinib research buy 2 mm glutamine, 100 IU/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin and 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (HyClone; Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA). Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) -activated blasts were obtained by stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) with 1 μg/ml purified PHA (Wellcome Diagnostics, Dartford, UK) for 3 days, and expanded in medium supplemented with human recombinant interleukin-2 (Proleukin, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA) as previously described.3 Cell were washed in cold PBS and resuspended in buffer containing 50 mm Tris–HCl (pH 7·5), 5 mm MgCl2, 1 mm dithiothreitol (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO), 2 mm ATP and 250 mm sucrose.

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