Also, the elderly were more likely not to have their AIDS conditi

Also, the elderly were more likely not to have their AIDS condition promptly diagnosed. (C) 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Vagal nerve MK-4827 order stimulation (VS) has been suggested to be an effective adjunct to reperfusion therapy in myocardial infarction (MI) However. the effect of VS on left ventricular (LV) remodeling after reperfused MI has not been examined

Methods and Results: We investigated the effects of early. brief VS on acute inflammatory reactions (study I) and chronic LV

remodeling (study 2) in a rabbit model of reperfused MI In study I. rabbits were subjected to 60-minute coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion alone (MI. n = 8) or treated with 24-hour VS (MI-VS. n = 8) At 24 hours after ischemia-reperfusion. MI-VS rabbits showed significantly decreased myocardial infiltration of neutrophils and reduced myocardial expressions of tumor necrosis factor-a and matrix metalloproteinase-8 and -9, compared with MI rabbits Myocardial expression of interleukin-6 was

not affected by VS In study 2. rabbits were subjected to coronary occlusion and reperfusion alone (n = 16) or treated with VS for 3 clays (n = 14) At 8 weeks after ischemia-reperfusion. MI-VS rabbits showed significantly improved LV dysfunction and dilatation, and significantly reduced infarct size, infarct wall thinning, A-1210477 chemical structure and LV weight compared with MI rabbits

Conclusion: Early. short-term VS attenuates LV remodeling after reperfused MI, which may be associated with suppression of MGCD0103 concentration acute inflammatory reactions (J Cardiac Fail 2010.16 689-699)”
“Background: There are no reports on hyponatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) involved in the course of HIV-related

toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). The main objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of hyponatremia and its relationship with AKI and mortality in HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE).

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with HIV-related TE. AKI was considered only when the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage) criterion was met, after the patient was admitted.

Results: A total of 92 patients were included, with a mean age of 36 9 years. Hyponatremia at admission was observed in 43 patients (46.7%), with AKI developing in 25 (27.1%) patients during their hospitalization. Sulfadiazine was the treatment of choice in 81% of the cases. Death occurred in 13 cases (14.1%). Low serum sodium level correlated directly with AKI and mortality. Male gender (OR 7.89, 95% CI 1.22-50.90, p = 0.03) and hyponatremia at admission (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.22-18.30, p = 0.02) were predictors for AKI. Independent risk factors for death were AKI (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.4-48.2, p < 0.0001) and hyponatremia (OR 9.9, 95% CI 1.2-96.3, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: AKI and hyponatremia are frequent in TE.

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