Antiadalimumab antibodies (AAA) and low trough serum drug concent

Antiadalimumab antibodies (AAA) and low trough serum drug concentrations have been implicated as pre-disposing factors for treatment failure. Aims To assess adalimumab and AAA serum levels, and to examine their association and discriminatory ability with clinical response and serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods We performed a cross-sectional PXD101 inhibitor study using trough sera from adalimumab-treated CD patients. Demographical data,

Montreal classification, treatment regimen and clinical status were recorded. Serum adalimumab, AAA and CRP were measured. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and a multi-variate regression model were performed to find drug and antibody thresholds for predicting disease activity at time of serum sampling. Results One hundred and eighteen trough serum samples were included from 71 patients. High adalimumab trough serum concentration was associated with disease remission (Area Under Curve 0.748, P smaller than 0.001). A cut-off drug level of

5.85 mu g/mL yielded optimal Autophagy Compound Library cell assay sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio for remission prediction (68%, 70.6% and 2.3, respectively). AAA were inversely related with adalimumab drug levels (Spearman’s r = -0.411, P smaller than 0.001) and when subdivided into categorical values, positively related with disease activity (P smaller than 0.001). High drug levels and stricturing vs. penetrating or inflammatory phenotype, but not AAA levels, independently predicted disease remission in a multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusions Adalimumab drug levels were inversely related to disease activity. High levels of anti-adalimumab antibodies

were positively associated hypoxia-inducible factor pathway with disease activity, but this association was mediated mostly by adalimumab drug levels.”
“Gauge theory plays the central role in modern physics. Here we propose a scheme of implementing artificial Abelian gauge fields via the parametric conversion method in a necklace of superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs) coupled by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The motivation is to synthesize an extremely strong effective magnetic field for charge-neutral bosons which can hardly be achieved in conventional solid-state systems. The dynamic modulations of the SQUIDs can induce effective magnetic fields for the microwave photons in the TLR necklace through the generation of the nontrivial hopping phases of the photon hopping between neighboring TLRs. To demonstrate the synthetic magnetic field, we study the realization and detection of the chiral photon flow dynamics in this architecture under the influence of decoherence. Taking the advantages of its simplicity and flexibility, this parametric scheme is feasible with state-of-the-art technology and may pave an alternative way for investigating the gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits. We further propose a quantitative measure for the chiral property of the photon flow.

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