“Objective: State health rankings present oversimplified a

“Objective: State health rankings present oversimplified and potentially damaging accounts of health status. Using the example of Kentucky, this article illustrates the realities masked by rankings that use averages and fail to account for social determinants of health.\n\nMethods: Findings from a range of publicly available data are combined to shed light

on factors that influence or are associated with health status indicators, including demographic data, health services utilization, health system elements, poverty, and educational attainment.\n\nResults: Despite its low overall performance, Kentucky includes counties

with health status that is equal to the highest-ranking states. Poverty and loss of healthy, working-age Acalabrutinib cell line populations are closely associated with low health status, as are low rates of high school graduation.\n\nConclusions: Rankings that average health status indicators across widely diverse areas may yield findings that are only marginally relevant for health policy development. A high burden of morbidity pulls resources from population health to high-cost health services, challenging the viability of long-range initiatives; however, a comprehensive approach to health status improvement will be necessary to bring PXD101 more southern US states like Kentucky into higher-ranking positions.”
“Background: The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking

and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates.\n\nOur aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration) to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method MLN4924 to collect Culicoides).\n\nMethods/results: Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France), with 3 replicates of a 4 sites x 4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected.

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