e. 4 weeks since phenelzine discontinuation) and then to start venlafaxine at a lower dose of 18.75mg. This was done but within 1 hour the patient became unwell again. She felt nauseous, was sweaty with some mild shivering. Her blood pressure was elevated at 167/99mmHg with a pulse of 101 bpm. We had selleck screening library anticipated that a further reaction
may happen and the patient was given 25mg of chlorpromazine orally. Chlorpromazine is a 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist and was administered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to mitigate some of the effects of SS. Her symptoms settled within an hour. As discussed below, it was felt that the lithium may be exacerbating the patient’s reaction to venlafaxine, since lithium can enhance serotonergic activity. Her lithium was subsequently slowly reduced and then stopped. At this point, 10 weeks after stopping Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the phenelzine, the venlafaxine was re-introduced at 18.75mg and then, the following day, 37.5mg. Unfortunately, an hour or so after taking 37.5mg dose the patient experienced nausea, shivering and sweating. However, this reaction was milder than previously with no increase in blood pressure and lasted only around 30minutes or so. This reaction was not felt to
be caused by anxiety about the re-introduction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of venlafaxine, as the change in her presentation (observed by ward staff) occurred while she was engaged in other activities. The patient was Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical keen to continue with venlafaxine but after a week of these continuing adverse effects, each time she took a dose, other medication options were considered. Other than a severe depressive illness, the patient had no other significant medical concerns. She was on lymecycline for acne, zopiclone for insomnia, levothyroxine and paracetamol for headaches. Her blood results, including renal function, liver function, thyroid function and full blood count were all within normal limits through this course of treatment. The patient is also a nonsmoker. Discussion The washout period between discontinuing an irreversible MAOI, such as phenelzine, and starting venlafaxine, or any SNRI, SSRI or TCA, is to Ketanserin allow for
biosynthesis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of MAO to replace enzyme which has been irreversibly inactivated. Current clinical recommendations in the UK [Bazire, 2010; BNF, 2010; Taylor et al. 2009] suggest a washout period of 2 weeks. However, there are previous cases in the literature of SS when switching from phenelzine to venlafaxine after 14 days, with twp patients developing SS after a gap of 14 days [Diamond et al. 1998], one after 15 days [Diamond et al. 1998] and one after 16 days [Kolecki, 1997]. Reviewing the literature, we can find little evidence to support the traditional 2-week recommendation. MAO has two subtypes, MAO-A and MAO-B. Although it is believed that 5-HT is preferentially metabolized by MAO-A, MAO-B may also play a significant role in the metabolism of 5-HT, particularly when MAO-A is inhibited.