reconstructions are then performed to d


reconstructions are then performed to define the kidney, the stone material, their relationships with surrounding structures, and the markers. The iPad camera is used to locate the markers. This information is sent to a server where an analysis of the marker positions is combined with the CT information to create an augmented reality-enhanced image. The latter is forwarded back to the iPad and used to direct access into the safest targeted calyx without fluoroscopic or ultrasound imaging. After the calyx is entered, fluoroscopic imaging is used to monitor guidewire and access sheath manipulations. Concerted efforts are now being undertaken to limit the amount of radiation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical exposure to patients during diagnostic and interventional procedures. Patients undergoing

ureteroscopic and PCNL procedures are exposed to such ionizing radiation. The use of pulsed fluoroscopy may reduce this exposure. Elkoushy and colleagues57 performed a retrospective study in which patients undergoing these procedures were subjected to pulsed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or standard fluoroscopy and found that the pulsed mode was associated with significantly lower fluoroscopy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical time. A Navitoclax clinical trial prospective study is needed comparing both techniques, including an assessment of image quality and its impact on performing the procedure. The aforementioned profile clearly demonstrated the many advances in stone research and how to best care for this cohort. The reader is directed to read these abstracts and await the anticipated peer-reviewed publications generated. [Dean Assimos, MD] Pediatric Urology Compared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with the adult population with infertility, there is a paucity of literature with normative data on semen analyses in adolescents. Most infertility specialists recommend two separate specimens Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical due to the degree of within-subject variability. The study cohort by Christman and colleagues58 included 79 patients with a mean age of 18.8+ 1.2 years with a history of undescended testis or varicocele. Each patient submitted two separate semen specimens at around age 18 years. The total motile count (TMC) was defined

as abnormal (< 20 million/ejaculate) or normal (> 20 million/ejaculate). The initial semen analysis had a TMC of 39.8 + 92.8 million and the second, 52.1 + 103.1 million. The mean within-subject difference in TMC was −12.3 + 52.1. PD184352 (CI-1040) There was a statistically significant correlation between the two semen specimens, with concordance between the samples in 86%. The κ statistic was 0.66, inferring a moderate-to-substantial agreement when the samples were stratified into low or normal TMC. The authors conclude that although there is a large degree of within-patient variability of individual semen analyses, there is moderate to substantial agreement between consecutive semen specimens in late adolescence when stratified by TMC.

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