However, when the infection sequence was reversed, where an initial T. muris infection was followed by a subsequent BCG infection
(Figure 1B), repeat experiments consistently indicated helminth clearance in >90% of both co-see more infected and T. muris-only infected mice (data not shown). Figure 3 Co-infection increases retention of JAK inhibitor T. muris helminths. The burden of T. muris worms were determined from the caecum and 3 inches of the colon of BALB/c mice infected according to the experimental design as shown in Figure 1A. Worm counts in T. muris-only BALB/c (clear circle) and IL-4KO (triangle) strains and co-infected BALB/c (square) mice infected with a low (A) and high (B) dose of helminth eggs. Data represents combined results of 2 individual experiments of 4–5 animals per SAHA HDAC solubility dmso group. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. (*p ≤ 0.05). Co-infection exacerbates cell proliferation in caecum tips A striking observation was the massive amount of mucus present in the caeca and colons of mice co-infected according to either experimental protocol (Figure 1A and B) in comparison to T. muris-only infected mice. Although PAS stained samples failed to demonstrate significant differences in goblet cell formation or caecal crypt-mucus production between co-infected and T. muris-only infected mice (Figure 4A), acidified toluidine blue staining showed significantly increased numbers of mitotic figures in
caecum crypts of co-infected animals as identified by their dense chromatic structure (Figure 4B). Very few mast cells were observed within the epithelium or lamina propria of the crypt units in co-infected mice and no significant statistical differences
in mast cell recruitment were observed between infection groups (Figure 4C). Figure 4 Co-infection increases mitotic figures in the caecum crypts. (A) Histological analysis of goblet cell numbers as determined by the percentage PAS+ cells (indicated by arrow) per 2 x 20 cross sectional crypt units in T. muris-only (clear) and co-infected (black) BALB/c mice infected according to the experimental heptaminol design as shown in Figure 1A. Data display median ± min-max, representing 2–3 individual experiments of 5 animals per group. (B) Toluidine blue stained mitotic bodies (indicated by the arrows) were counted in 2 x 20 crypts/slide. Numbers of mitotic bodies as determined from cross-sectional and longitudinal crypt units in co-infected (black) and T. muris-only (clear) infected BALB/c mice infected according to Figure 1A. Data display median ± min-max, representing 2–3 individual experiments of 5 animals per group (C) Toluidine blue staining for the assessment of mast cells (indicated by arrows) in cross sectional and longitudinal crypt units demonstrated few mast cells within the lamina propria and crypt epithelium of the caecum tissue with most mast cells residing within the submucosa surrounding the caecum.