Ketamine appeared to block the Kv channel directly, and the block

Ketamine appeared to block the Kv channel directly, and the blockade was independent of NMDArs (14). Ketamine markedly depolarized the membrane potential (Em) of RMASMCs and concomitantly lowered the membrane conductance (Gm) (14). Kv channels are major regulators of Em and thus of the excitability of muscle cells and neurons. Kv channels play key roles in the regulation check details of vascular tone, propagation of action potential in axons, regulation of resting Em in neurons and smooth muscle cells, activation of lymphocytes, release of neurotransmitters,

and degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (15), (16), (17), (18), (19), (20), (21) and (22). However, the effect of MK801 on Kv-channel currents, especially in vascular smooth muscle cells, has not yet been explored. In this study, we investigated how MK801 affects Kv-channel currents and Em in RMASMCs by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Our results demonstrate that MK801 potently and directly inhibited Kv currents independently of NMDArs. The results also suggest that MK801 blocks Kv channels by binding the channels in their resting closed states. This inhibition of Kv channels by MK801 should be considered when assessing the various pharmacological

IOX1 effects produced by MK801, such as schizophrenia, neuroprotection, and hypertension. Male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats (9–11-weeks old) were used in experiments. All experiments were conducted in accordance with the National Institutes of Health guidelines for the care and use of animals, and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Konkuk University approved this study. Rats Megestrol Acetate were sacrificed by exposing them to a rising concentration of carbon dioxide or by exsanguination by severing the carotid arteries under deep ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. Single-cell suspensions of RMASMCs were prepared as previously described (14). Briefly, the second to fourth order branches of superior mesenteric arteries were carefully removed and placed in normal Tyrode (NT) solution (143 mM NaCl, 5.4 mM KCl, 0.33 mM NaH2PO4, 1.8 mM CaCl2, 0.5 mM MgCl2, 5 mM HEPES, and 11 mM glucose, adjusted to pH 7.4 with NaOH). The arteries were cut into small

pieces and then transferred to digestion solutions. The tissue was first digested for 15 min in Ca2+-free NT solution containing 1 mg/mL papain (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, MO, USA), 1 mg/mL bovine serum albumin, and 1 mg/mL dithiothreitol. Ca2+-free NT was prepared by omitting 1.8-mM CaCl2 from NT solution. Next, the sample was incubated for 25 min in a second digestion solution, in which 3 mg/mL collagenase (Wako, Osaka, Japan) replaced papain. After enzyme treatment, cells were isolated by gentle agitation with a fire-polished glass pipette in the Ca2+-free NT solution. NT was used as the bath solution, and the pipette internal solution contained 140 mM KCl, 5 mM NaCl, 5 mM MgATP, 10 mM HEPES, and 10 mM 1,2-bis(aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), adjusted to pH 7.2 with KOH.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>