project illustrates how health systems and community pharmacists can collaborate to improve patient care. Educational presentations on the importance of Tdap immunization could be given at prenatal classes. Additional immunization clinic times in pediatric Selleck Decitabine and family practice offices may be considered in the future. The authors acknowledge Joshua Titus, PharmD; Judith Sommers-Hanson, PharmD; Ed Cohen, PharmD; and Heather Kirkham, PhD for their conception of the Tdap pilot programs. Conflict of interest statement: This research was supported in part by a grant from the American Pharmacists Association Foundation and by Walgreen Co. (a national retail pharmacy chain in the United States). B. Mills, M.Taitel, L. Fensterheim, and A.Cannon are employees of Walgreen Co. “
“Clinical trials have shown human papillomavirus (HPV) prophylactic vaccines
PD0332991 clinical trial to have high efficacy against cervical HPV infection and HPV-related cervical disease associated with the vaccine HPV types ,  and  and HPV immunisation programmes have been introduced in many countries . In England, the national HPV immunisation programme began in September 2008, using the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®). Routine vaccination is offered, in schools (with few exceptions), to girls aged 12 years at the start of each academic year (September). Catch-up immunisation was
provided, in schools and by general practitioners (mostly for the oldest cohorts), to girls who were aged 13–17 years when the programme began (September 2008). Vaccine uptake has been high with coverage of over 80% of 12 year olds for all three vaccine doses. Coverage amongst the catch-up cohorts was lower and varied by age at vaccination (overall 56% for three doses; range 39% to 76%) . The programme changed to use the quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil®) for routine immunisation of 12 year olds in September 2012. In England, women are invited for cervical screening from 25 years of age: hence the earliest we expect to see any effect of vaccination on the incidence of cervical abnormalities is 2015, and girls immunised aged 12 years will not be invited for screening else until 2020. To monitor the impact of the immunisation programme prior to impact on disease, we are conducting surveillance of vaccine and non-vaccine HPV type infections amongst specimens obtained from sexually active young (16–24 years) females undergoing opportunistic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis as part of the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) . Chlamydia screening is recommended for all sexually active young women, annually and on partner change, and is offered opportunistically when they attend a range of services . An HPV survey was first done in 2008.