The patients were asked to gargle for 30 s with 20 ml of 0 9% sod

The patients were asked to gargle for 30 s with 20 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride. EBV IgG antibody titers to EA and VCA was determined in plasma by conventional Protease Inhibitor Library solubility dmso immunofluoroscence applied to antigen positive cells. IgG

and IgM titers were determined against EBNA 1 with peptide (p107) based ELISA. The patients gargled with 10 mL of RPMI medium for 1 min. The throat wash was centrifuged at 2000 rpm (approximately 600 × g) for 10 min, and then the supernatant was frozen at −70 °C until testing. Half mL of the sample was lysed in 0.5 mL of PCR-lysate buffer [18]. EBV DNA analysis and statistics were performed as previously reported by Friis et al. [18]. This method is as sensitive and gives similar results as quantitative PCR (qPCR) [2]. In addition it provides results in all samples, while qPCR may fail more often due to inhibition and quenching. One hundred μL of plasma were lysed in 100 μL PCR-lysate buffer. Plasma samples were tested for positive

respectively negative BKM120 research buy reaction using the same PCR condition as for blood. Non-parametric Mann Whitney or Kruskal Wallis tests were applied, using StatView II (Abacus Concepts Inc.). Multivariate analysis was also performed using Simca-P 8.0 (Umetrics AB) but did not add anything to our interpretation based on univariate analysis. HIV-1 infected patients included in the rgp160 vaccine trials showed higher median EBV-DNA load, 2.4 copies per 1000 B cells (n = 42)

compared to non-vaccinated HIV-carriers, 0.49 per 1000 B cells (n = 18; p < 0.01, Fig. 1A). Although the patients were recruited from two slightly different vaccination trials (see Materials and Methods), we found no statistical difference in EBV-DNA load between the two groups. A considerable individual variation was observed. Liothyronine Sodium There was no significant statistical difference as regards age, sex, and antiretroviral treatment when comparing immunised and non-immunised patients ( Table 1). However, in the rgp160 study group higher CD4+ cell counts were detected, which is most likely a result of the selection criteria for the vaccine trial. The immunised group had a median value of 270 × 106 cells/L (n = 42) as compared to a median of 120 × 106 cells/L (n = 18) in the HIV-1 positive patients not included in the vaccine trial. We observed no significant correlation between the CD4+ cell counts and the EBV load, although there was a tendency to inverted correlation between these variables that patients with a high EBV load had low CD4+ cell counts, and patients with a low EBV load had a high CD4+ cell count. The highest EBV values were exclusively found in the immunised group, while low values could be seen both in immunised and non-immunised patients. In the non-immunised HIV-1 carriers, the asymptomatic patients had a median EBV load of 0.

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