There have however been a few reported cases on clinical infections such as endocarditis, bacteraemia, and urinary tract infections caused by these microbial species, though in all these cases, patients had underlying conditions which selleck compound predisposed them to infections particularly in the case of endocarditis [20, 21]. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc species and Lactobacillus casei (paracasei) have been cited in some non-enterococcal LAB endocarditis cases . In view of this, it is relevant to have a more
thorough safety assessment of LAB before their uses as live cultures for varying applications in the food and feed industry. Moreover, the wide spread use of antibiotics in human medicines and farm practices has over
the past century led to the spread of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Antibiotics efficacy on bacteria is defined in terms of their MIC (mg/L) value which is considered as the reference point for comparing different Sepantronium price antibiotics potency . It has been shown that genes coding for antibiotics resistance can be transferred among bacteria of different genera and thus to pathogenic bacteria which consequently cannot be treated with previously successful antibiotics . In a study by Temmerman et al. , it was observed that out of a total of 268 bacteria isolated from 55 European probiotics products, antibiotic resistance among 187 of the isolates was detected against kanamycin (79% of the isolates), vancomycin (65%), tetracycline (26%), penicillin G (23%), erythromycin (16%) and chloramphenicol (11%) whereas 68.4% of the isolates showed
resistance against multiple antibiotics including intrinsic resistances. According to Kastner et al. , out of 200 starter cultures and probiotic bacteria isolated from 90 different food sources in Zurich, 27 isolates exhibited resistance patterns that could not be ascribed as an intrinsic feature of the respective genera. Ninety four tetracycline-resistant LAB strains from fermented dry sausages were also reported by VX-770 concentration Gevers et al.  in which it was attributed to the presence of tetracycline resistance tet(M) gene. While many studies have investigated the resistance profiles of LAB from the European origin [27–29], Bay 11-7085 much less have been reported on the antimicrobial susceptibility of LAB of African origin. In some developing countries for instance, there is influx of antibiotics from different parts of the world into the market and subsequently, stricter regulations and laws are not enforced to regulate antibiotics uses as human medicine [30, 31]. Antibiotics could even be purchased from local pharmacies as over-the-counter preparations, without prescriptions . In Ghana, clinical isolates with multiple drug resistance to the four predominantly used antibiotic drugs; ampicillin, cotrimozaxole, tetracycline and chloramphenicol have been reported .