In the 13th century the city of Venice had around 100,000 inhabit

In the 13th century the city of Venice had around 100,000 inhabitants. The data set consists of more than 850 acoustic survey lines for a total of about 1100 km (Fig. 1b). The acoustic survey was carried out with a 30 kHz Elac LAZ 72 single-beam echosounder with a DGPS positioning system mounted on a small boat with an average survey speed of 3–4 knots. The survey grid is composed of parallel lines mainly in the north-south direction with a spacing of 50 m and some profiles in the east–west direction. The sampling frequency was 50 Hz, with 500 samples (10 ms) recorded for each echo signal envelope and the pulse length of the SBE was 0.15 ms. The pulse

repetition rate was 1.5 pulses s−1. Data GSK126 cost were collected between 2003 and 2009. During the acquisition, we changed the settings to obtain the best information over the buried structures visible in the acoustic profiles. We used the highest transmitting power together with suitable amplification of the signal in order to achieve the maximum penetration of the 30 kHz waves (5 cm wave length in the water) in the lagoon sediments. The gain value was set between 4 and 5 (scale from 1 to 10). These settings

provided a 6–7 m visibility of the sub-bottom layers. A more detailed description of the method used to acquire the profiles can be found in Madricardo Venetoclax in vitro et al., Lck 2007 and Madricardo et al., 2012. Numerous sediment cores were extracted in the central lagoon

(Fig. 1b) with an average recovery of about 8.5 m, permitting the definition of all the features identified in the acoustic profiles. Most of the cores crossed acoustic reflectors interpreted as palaeochannels and palaeosurfaces. Five cores were used in this study: SG24, SG25, SG26, SG27, SG28. The cores (core diameter 101 mm) were acquired using a rotation method with water circulation. Each core was split, photographed, and described for lithology, grain size (and degree of sorting), sedimentary structures, physical properties, Munsell color, presence of plant remains and palaeontological content. Moreover, we sampled the sediment cores for micropalaeontological and radiometric analyses. The quantitative study of foraminifera distribution patterns is very important for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The organic content was composed of crushed mollusc shells mixed with abundant tests of benthic foraminifera. We classified at least 150 foraminiferal specimens from each sample according to the taxonomic results of Loeblich and Tappan (1987), in order to identify the biofacies corresponding to different environmental conditions. Percent abundance was used for statistical data processing. Through analyses of the sediment cores, we identified the diagnostic sedimentary facies that are described in detail in Madricardo et al. (2012).

The X-loading plot for the first two axes was constructed and is

The X-loading plot for the first two axes was constructed and is shown in Fig. 2b. PC-1 was mainly correlated with m/z 61, 75, 85, 89, 103, 117, 131, 145 and 159, these are well known parent and fragment ions of common alkylesters ( Aprea,

Biasioli, Enzalutamide datasheet Märk, & Gasperi, 2007). Similar fragments have also been reported in other DIMS studies. PC1 can therefore be tentatively identified as being related to the relative abundance of esters, and therefore the axis would be correlated to flavour notes such as fruity, ethereal, and fresh. Indeed, Jazz and Braeburn samples were clustered in the left side of the PCA map whilst the Granny Smith and Golden Delicious in the right. The second PC axis was also correlated with fragments of esters

and alcohols, of which m/z 61 or 85 are tentatively attributed as fragments of acetates and 1-hexanol ( Soukoulis et al., 2013), and 101 and 99 are proposed to be the parent ions of carbonyl compounds e.g. 1-hexanal (m/z 101) or trans-2-hexenal (m/z 99). Furthermore, m/z 83 was strongly discriminating and could be attributed to a dehydration product of 1-hexanal. According to the X-loading plot for PC-1 and PC-3 (Fig. 3b) the peaks at m/z 47 and 45, which correspond to MK 8776 ethanol and acetaldehyde respectively ( Davies et al., 2011), allowed the discrimination between Jazz and Braeburn apples supporting the classification data displayed in Table 2. Acetaldehyde is one of the most abundant volatile compounds present in the headspace of fresh cut apples ( Ting et

al., 2012). Apples juices extracted from Braeburn, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady were characterised by higher levels of acetaldehyde and ethanol which is in accordance with previously published data ( Ting et al., 2012). Ethanol is considered as an indicator of post harvesting conditions e.g. exposure to hypoxia, stage of climacteric ripening ( Dixon, 1999). According to Fig. 3a, juices extracted from Braeburn and Pink Lady had higher amounts of ethanol compared to Jazz and Granny Smith. The former observation ADP ribosylation factor implies that the APCI-MS fingerprinting may also provide important information associated not only with the genetic diversity of the samples but also with the adopted post-harvest practices, although further studies are recommended in this area. For the further evaluation of APCI-MS as a viable method for food authenticity testing and classification, the geographical provenance of the apples tested previously was also modelled. As it can be seen in Fig. 4a, effective clustering for the three apple juices was obtained, with New Zealand and South Africa being most clearly discriminated. The first two principle component axes accounted for 48% of total variability. For the PLS-DA models, five principle components were used which accounted for 79.7% of the total variability. The most robust classification performance was obtained in the case of internally validated PLS-DA models (97.

Although microspheres of chitosan crosslinked with 8-hydroxyquino

Although microspheres of chitosan crosslinked with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid can act as an adsorbent for several

metallic ions (Vitali et al., 2008), the interference was greatly minimised Linsitinib concentration by the application of the pre-concentration potential. At −0.4 V, the potential chosen to pre-concentrate Cu(II), the metallic ions with a reduction potential more negative than −0.4 V are not reduced (pre-concentrated) at the electrode surface. These results show that the proposed sensor can be used for Cu(II) determination in solutions containing the tested ions without a notable loss in the analytical response. The anodic stripping voltammograms for different Cu(II) concentrations under the optimised conditions are shown in Fig. 4. In the inset, the respective calibration curve obtained is represented, while the validation parameters obtained GSI-IX supplier for Cu(II) determination employing the CPE-CTS are given in Table 1. From these data it can be seen that the current peak increases linearly with increasing Cu(II) concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10−7 to 1.4 × 10−5 mol L−1 (Δip = −0.70 + 0.12 × 107 [Cu(II)], r = 0.9990). However, for higher Cu(II) concentrations a negative deviation

from linearity was observed due to the electrode surface saturation. Also, a slight shift toward more positive potentials is observed in the peak potential with increasing Cu(II) concentration. The detection and quantification limits calculated ( Table 1) show that the proposed sensor has a high sensitivity toward Cu(II) detection. The relative enough standard deviation (n = 8) was lower than 3.0% for the determination of Cu(II) in solutions with concentrations of 6.0 × 10−6, 5.0 × 10−5 and 1.5 × 10−4 mol L−1

indicating that the electrode provides reliable data with excellent precision. In this study, the concentration of 1.5 × 10−4 mol L−1 Cu(II) is out of the linear range of the calibration curve, however, the relative standard deviation was practically the same as those observed for the other concentrations lying within the calibration curve. This behaviour indicates that the electrode provides reliable data even for solutions with concentrations slightly higher than those of the calibration curve. The repeatability for ten measurements of the current peak for solutions of 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 Cu(II) under optimised conditions was excellent, with relative standard deviations of 1.31%. The reproducibility of the current peak was tested over four days using different solutions prepared in the concentration of 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 Cu(II). The relative standard deviation was 2.73%. When compared to other modified carbon paste electrodes employed for Cu(II) determination, the CPE-CTS sensor also showed good performance. For example, a carbon paste electrode modified with 3,4-dihydro-4,4,6-trimethyl-2(1H)-pyrimidine thione for use in potentiometry showed a linear range of 9.8 × 10−7 to 7.

The type of CNT, how it is embedded in the matrix and in which fo

The type of CNT, how it is embedded in the matrix and in which form it is released could not be evaluated due to missing data. Different release scenarios are formulated for the manufacturing of products and articles (2 occupational scenarios), the use phase of articles (5 consumer scenarios) and the end-of-life phase (2 worker and general public scenarios). The chosen scenarios are representative for the uses of CNT composites today: sporting goods and consumer electronics containing CNTs are on the market today, see the Woodrow Wilson Database ( Also uses in cars (small components

in various parts) and as large-scale structures (e.g. airplanes, windmill blades) have been described (Dahm et al., 2012). The use of CNTs in rubber for tires has been patented (Kim, 2003). Several possible uses of see more CNTs in textiles have been described (Goncalves et al., 2012, Koehler et al.,

2008, Liu et al., 2008 and Panhuis et al., 2007). A flame retardant CNT formulation called Thermocyl© is being marketed in part for use with textiles check details but no other products are on the market. The scenarios chosen for this work are summarized in Table 1. In addition to the use-phase scenarios of products on the market or near-market, two scenarios cover the production and manufacturing of the composites. Two

additional scenarios look in detail at release during waste incineration and in landfills, because these two life-cycle steps will be common to many applications. Injection molding is one of the most common plastic manufacturing method used to mass-produce parts of the same type. It Elongation factor 2 kinase is advantageous to use this method as it is a low cost option to mass produce parts with low tolerance variability, minimal after process activities such as grinding, cutting and sanding, high production yields and the ability to use multiple material types. The injection molding manufacturing process begins with a CNT master batch thermoplastic or thermoset pellet feed into a hopper. The pellets are screw fed into a heated barrel, where the material is melted. This process is enclosed, preventing any potential release of CNTs to the workplace. The temperature of the melt process is dependent upon the melt point of the plastic used in the process. A plunger mechanism forces the melted plastic material into the part mold. The plastic returns to its solid format inside the mold and once the part has completely solidified, the part is removed from the mold and finished. The final preparation of master batches involves cutting the long strings of extruded composite into pellets.

, 2009) We used the statistical software R 2 13 0 (R Development

, 2009). We used the statistical software R 2.13.0 (R Development Core Team, 2011) and the add-on packages lme4 (Bates et al., 2011) and MuMIn (Bartoń, 2011). From the original number of L. pulmonaria transplants in 1994 (1120), 28% (313) were lost due to tree fall or that the transplant net had fallen off, and from the remaining 807 transplants 69% did not survive (no Crenolanib concentration thallus remained) 14 years after transplantation ( Table 1). In 1996, 90% of remaining transplants

had survived on clearcuts and 88% in forests, compared to 44% and 17% in 2008, respectively. In 1996, 69% of the remaining transplants on clearcuts and 61% in forests were classified as being vital (⩾50% of a survived thallus in a viable condition), compared to 70% and 74%, respectively, in 2008. After 14 years (2008) 61% of all transplants on northern sides on clearcut trees had survived and 26% on southern sides of clearcut trees, while 16% had survived on northern sides and 17% on southern sides of forest trees (Fig. 1). The proportion of transplants assessed as vital was 76% on northern sides of clearcut trees and 57% on southern sides, and 76% on northern sides EGFR inhibitors cancer of forest

trees and 72% on southern sides (Fig. 2). The results of the GLMM showed that survival was significantly higher on clearcuts and there especially on northern sides of aspen trees, compared to southern sides or in the forest (Fig. 1 and Table 2). Vitality of transplants in 2008 was significantly higher on northern sides compared to southern sides in all trees

(Fig. 2 and Table 2). Tree diameter improved the models for survival, but the variable was not significant in 2008. In 2008, 40% of transplants on trees in groups and 47% on scattered trees on clearcuts had survived after 14 years. Of these 74% and 68%, respectively, were classified as vital. Differences between types of retention trees were not significant, neither for survival nor vitality. In 2008, survival of autumn IMP dehydrogenase transplants was 36%, which was significantly higher than for spring transplants, 27%. For vitality there was no significant difference between spring and autumn transplants, of which 75% and 68%, respectively, were assessed as vital (Table 3). Seventeen (85%) of the trees were still standing in 2008. The survival was in 2008 similar between fresh material (77% of transplants survived) and frozen (71%), and vitality of the survived transplants was also similar (77% were vital, for frozen as well as fresh material). The significantly higher survival in 2008 on northern sides of clearcut trees compared to southern sides or on forest trees was not seen in the 1996 data (Fig. 1 and Table 2 and Table 3). The overall higher transplant vitality on northern sides compared to southern sides in 2008 (Fig.

1) Unfortunately, however, most countries where tree commodity c

1). Unfortunately, however, most countries where tree commodity crops are widely cultivated do not provide data on the proportion of production by smallholders compared to large-scale growers,

so measuring the benefits received by the former group is not straightforward. One country that does provide this information is Indonesia, where in 2011 small farms Selleckchem Pifithrin �� were estimated to contribute 42%, 96%, 85%, 94% and 46% of the country’s production area for palm oil, coffee, rubber, cocoa and tea, respectively (Government of Indonesia, 2013). Other illustrative data reported on a commodity-by-commodity basis also show how important small-scale tree crop production is in tropical nations: approximately 30% of oil palm-planted land in Malaysia is managed by smallholders (Basiron, 2007), while more than 65% of all coffee produced worldwide comes from small farms (ICO, 2013). The equivalent figure for cocoa is 90% (ICCO, 2013), while more than 75% of all natural rubber produced between Selleck Raf inhibitor the years 1998 and 2003 was estimated to come from land holdings

smaller than 40 hectares (INFOCOMM, 2013). Again, around 75% and 50% of tea grown in Sri Lanka and Kenya, respectively, is considered to come from small farms (INFOCOMM, 2013). The above data suggest that much of the revenues from cultivating these commodities accrue to small-scale farmers. Returning to the example of Indonesia, for example, a rough calculation can be made based on estimated production volumes (Government of Indonesia, 2013) and FAOSTAT-reported producer price data. Here, in 2011, the total farm-gate value to the country’s smallholders for palm oil, cocoa and coffee must have amounted to more than two billion, 1.5 billion and one billion USD, respectively, based on our calculations. Data illustrating the significant revenues received by smallholders from growing tree commodities indicate

the magnitude of the challenge in managing commodities sustainably in the context of the potentially deleterious ecological Reverse transcriptase impacts of their production on agricultural and forest landscapes (Section 4.3). The main tree commodity crops have all been subject to formal breeding, although the efforts involved have often been ad hoc based on the availability of germplasm to the breeders involved ( Mohan Jain and Priyadarshan, 2009). Partly, ad hoc approaches reflect the fact that the main centres of production of tree commodities are spread across the tropics and are often outside their native ranges (see Fig. 1 for the five examples discussed in Section 4.1; UNCTAD, 2011).

5 min vs the 3 min standard time, the average peak heights were

5 min vs. the 3 min standard time, the average peak heights were lowered for both the low and high cell loads; increasing Ulixertinib datasheet the incubation time by two-fold did not lead to an increase in average peak heights for low cell load and decreased the peak height for the higher cell load (Table 1). Full profiles were obtained at all bead incubation times. The results indicate that bead concentration and incubation

time are reliable for recovering sufficient DNA from buccal swabs. When coffee, tobacco slurry, and hematin were added to swabs containing 1000 M cells at 25,000 and 100,000, full profiles were obtained at all levels of the three inhibitors (Fig. 1). Average peak heights (data not shown) and average heterozygote peak height ratios (range 83.8–91.7%) at the different inhibitors levels were similar. In the mock hematin study performed on the bench with control DNA 007, full profiles were obtained up to 0.5 mM hematin concentration added to the PCR reaction. However, addition of 1 mM hematin severely inhibited the reaction with only 6 and 7 alleles present in the duplicate reactions (data not shown). The results indicate that the extraction and purification steps on the system can provide quality DNA for PCR amplification. A mock inhibition study selleck compound was also performed with EDTA added directly to the STR reaction to test the robustness of the assay. Full profiles were still obtained up to 1 mM of EDTA added to the reaction

for all 6 samples, and full profiles were still obtained in 5 out 6 samples at 1.5 mM EDTA. As expected, average peaks heights decrease with increasing EDTA added to the reaction (∼6-fold decrease with 25,000 cells and ∼8-fold decrease with 100,000 cells at 1.5 mM EDTA). The results indicate that the multiplex STR chemistry is robust to decreases in MgCl2 concentration as profiles can still be obtained at the 1.5 mM EDTA level. Boundary studies were conducted for activation, denaturing and annealing temperature testing at two degrees below and above the

optimized temperature. No impact to the STR profile, the average peak Vorinostat manufacturer heights, or the heterozygote peak height ratios were seen indicating that the optimized temperatures for these three PCR parameters are robust (Fig. 2). Decreasing final extension time by half to 4 min did not affect the STR profile and no incomplete +A addition was observed. Increasing cycle number led to an increase in average peak height at 29 cycles and heterozygote peak height ratios were similar (Fig. 2). No reproducible peaks were detected for bovine, chicken, porcine or rabbit in the three replicate reactions for each species tested. A reproducible 97.4 bp VIC dye-labeled fragment was observed in the horse samples and has previously been reported in the validation studies of GlobalFiler Express performed by ThermoFisher Scientific [12]. The peak was below the Amelogenin marker and was not called (data not shown).

The aglycone of the ginseng triol-saponins is a PPT, which is a d

The aglycone of the ginseng triol-saponins is a PPT, which is a dammarane triterpenoid hydroxylated to C-3, C-12, and C-20 via β-linkage and to C-6 via α-linkage with a double bond between C-24 and C-25. In triol-saponins, sugars are attached to the hydroxyl groups at C-6 and C-20. The ginsenosides Re (1) and 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf (4) are bisdesmosidic selleck and the ginsenosides Rf (2) and Rg2 (3) are monodesmosidic saponins. The ginsenoside Re (1) has an α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranose

moiety at 6-OH and a β-D-glucopyranose moiety at 20-OH. The 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf (4) has a sophorose moiety (β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranose) at 6-OH and a β-D-glucopyranose moiety at 20-OH. The monodesmoside ginsenosides

Rf (2) and Rg2 (3) have sophorose and α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranose moieties, respectively, at selleck kinase inhibitor 6-OH (Fig. 1). The literature has varying assignments for the NMR signals for the hydroxyl group-linked atoms, the methyl carbon atoms, the olefinic carbon atoms, and for protons linked to individual carbon atoms [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14] and [15]. This study definitively identified individual proton and carbon signals using the two-dimensional NMR techniques of correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond Dapagliflozin connectivity (HMBC). Melting points, specific rotation, IR absorbance, and fast atom bombardment (FAB)/MS data were obtained using standard methods and data were compared to findings in the literature [5], [7], [10], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20] and [21]. The retention factor (Rf) of each saponin in both normal and reverse-phase TLC experiments and the retention time of each ginsenoside by carbohydrate-based HPLC were also determined. Six-year-old fresh ginseng roots were purchased from the Geumsan Ginseng Market in Chungnam,

Korea in October 2007. Kieselgel 60 and LiChroprep RP-18 were used for column chromatography (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). Kieselgel 60 F254 and RP-18 F254S were used as TLC solid phases (Merck). The former used a mobile phase of CHCl3–methanol (MeOH)–H2O (65:35:10) and the latter used MeOH–H2O (2:1). Detection of substances on TLC plates was by observation under a UV lamp (Spectroline, model ENF-240 C/F; Spectronics Corp., New York, NY, USA) or by spraying developed plates with 10% aqueous H2SO4 followed by heating and observing color development. HPLC was at 50°C and 30 psi using an LC-20A (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD; Shimadzu). HPLC analytical columns were Carbohydrate ES (5 μm, 250 × 46 mm; Grace, Deerfield, IL, USA) eluted with step-wise gradients at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min using solvent A (acetonitrile–H2O–isopropanol = 80:5:15) and solvent B (acetonitrile–H2O–isopropanol = 60:25:15).

1) In the upper reach, the main channel narrowed from 1895 to 19

1). In the upper reach, the main channel narrowed from 1895 to 1975, but widened slightly Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor since 1975. Since 1895,

land area generally decreased, with erosion on upstream sides of islands and some land emergence in backwaters (Fig. 3). In the middle reach, where the managed channel is tightly confined by levees and railroad dikes, both land loss and emergence have occurred in recent decades (Fig. 3). In 1975, land area had greatly decreased relative to 1895, due to the increased water elevation, yet by 1989, land emergence is evident where land was present pre-impoundment and where wing and closing dikes are located. Between 1989 and 2010, both island erosion, possibly due to wave action from increased wind fetch, and land emergence in isolated backwaters occurred. Generally, upstream areas of the middle reach are similar to the upper reach, while downstream areas are more similar to the lower reach. Overall, since 1975 land has increased slightly in the middle reach. In the lower reach of Pool 6, where the river valley becomes more confined by bluffs on both sides of the river, mid-channel features, as well as other depositional areas have increased since 1975 (Fig. 3). Island expansion occurred between wing dikes and behind closing dikes, islands and bars emerged

selleck kinase inhibitor just upstream of Lock and Dam 6, and a delta formed at the mouth of Cedar Creek. These patterns are discussed in detail in the following section. Aerial imagery and data from 10 periods provide a higher-resolution chronology of changes in land in LP6 (Fig. 4). Time periods between imagery ranged from 4 to 36 years, so calculated rates of land emergence and loss are not likely to be steady over each period, but may be useful for understanding influences of river management (Table 3). In LP6, by 1931, land area had increased by 40% relative to 1895, mostly due to next infilling of wing and closing dikes (Fig. 4, Table 3). Closure of Lock and Dam 6, which increased water

levels 2–3 m immediately upstream of the dam, decreased land area 67% by 1940, relative to 1931. Loss continued through 1947, but by 1954 land area had begun to increase. The area gained was offset by losses between 1954 and 1962, with gains and losses largely occurring in the same places, principally along the margins of the Island 81 complex (Table 3, Fig. 5). Between 1954 and 1962, a 156% increase in land area of the upper Mobile Island presaged the development of the lower Mobile Island in the following period (Fig. 5). Despite two of the largest floods in the historical record, little net gain occurred between 1962 and 1975 (Fig. 4, Table 3). Erosion and loss dominated the upper ends of each island complex, and land eroded at margins of both islands and bank-attached land (i.e., land contiguous with uplands or levees). However, lower Mobile Island also emerged in this period and subsequently grew rapidly.

e ,

changes to human–prey population dynamics, human popu


changes to human–prey population dynamics, human population densities, or other input parameters) do not support the overkill model (see Belovsky, 1998 and Choquenot PD-332991 and Bowman, 1998). Given that these models disagree in their outcomes and can only provide insights into the relative plausibility of the overkill model, the strongest evidence for overkill comes from the timing of megafaunal extinctions and human colonization. In the Americas, the major megafauna extinction interval coincides with the late Pleistocene arrival of humans about 15,000 years ago (Dillehay, 2000, Meltzer, 2009 and Meltzer et al., 1997). Most of the megafauna were lost by 10,500 years ago or earlier, generally coincident with the regionalization of Paleoindian projectile points, often interpreted as megafauna hunting technologies, in North America. Similarities are seen in Australia with first human colonization at about 50,000 years ago and the extinction of the continental megafauna within 4000 years on the mainland (Gillespie, 2008 and Roberts et al., 2001) and slightly later on Tasmania (Turney et al., 2008). The association of megafauna extinctions and

human arrival in Eurasia is more difficult to demonstrate. Hominins (e.g., Homo erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neandertalensis) were present in large parts of Eurasia for roughly two buy PD0332991 Chlormezanone million years, so Eurasian mammals should have co-evolved with hominins in a fashion similar to Martin’s African model. With the first AMH arriving in various parts of Eurasia between about 60,000 and 50,000 years ago, apparently with more sophisticated brains and technologies, AMH may have sparked the first wave of megafaunal extinctions at ∼48,000 years ago ( Barnosky et al., 2004). Overkill opponents argue that the small number of documented megafauna kill sites in the Americas and Australia provides no empirical evidence for the model (Field et al., 2008, Field

et al., 2013, Grayson, 1991, Grayson and Meltzer, 2002 and Mulvaney and Kamminga, 1999). For North America, Grayson and Meltzer (2003) argued that only four extinct genera of megafauna were targeted by humans at 14 archeological sites. In South America, even fewer megafauna kill sites have been found (see Fiedel and Haynes, 2004:123). Australia has produced no clear extinct megafauna kill sites, save one possible site at Cuddie Springs (Field et al., 2002, Field et al., 2008, Field et al., 2013 and Mulvaney and Kamminga, 1999). In both Australia and the Americas, these numbers are based on conservative interpretations of archeological associations, however, and other scholars argue for considerably larger numbers of kill sites.