In this section, we will describe these strategies

In this section, we will describe these strategies GW 572016 in more detail, highlighting the insights from the practical standpoint.2.1. Dual AFP-Fused FRET-Based BiosensorsFRET is a physicochemical phenomenon which only occurs when two fluorophores are in sufficient proximity (<10 nm) of each other, and the emission spectrum of the donor overlaps the excitation spectrum of the acceptor [57]. In the AFP-based FRET strategy, CFP and YFP mutants have been favorably utilized as a FRET donor and an acceptor, respectively [58]. Engineering with two AFPs in combination with the receptor protein affords a sensor protein that responds to dynamic fluctuation of intracellular ligand concentration by a ratiometric fluorescence change. The feasibility of this strategy strongly depends on the magnitude of the structural change of the receptor.

In the case of the receptor with a large structural change upon binding the substrate, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries this strategy would be the most straightforward way to integrate the signal transduction function into the receptor of interest (Figure 1a), Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries although serious concerns have been pointed out that the obtained FRET signals do not simply reflect the change in the expected distance of FRET pairs [58,59]. The trailblazing work for this sensor was reported by Miyawaki et al., in which a genetically encoded calcium indicator composed of two different colored AFP mutants and calmodulin, a Ca2+ receptor, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries has been constructed [36].Figure 1.Schematic illustration shows a concept of ligand sensing by dual AFP-fused FRET-based biosensors.

Currently, CFP and YFP mutants are preferentially selected as FRET donor and acceptor, respectively. (a) Intramolecular FRET-based biosensors exploit the …The receptor complex that accompanies the dissociation or the association of multiple subunits upon ligand binding was also suitable for Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the design of FRET-based biosensors (Figure 1b). Zaccoro and coworkers constructed a ratiometric fluorescent biosensor for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on the basis of an intermolecular FRET system between regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) [47,48]. This biosensor can detect the rise of intracellular cAMP concentration by the decrease in the FRET efficiency induced by the dissociation of C subunit from R subunit. More Dacomitinib comprehensive information on dual AFP-fused FRET-based biosensors is available in other excellent reviews [60�C62].

Recently, Johnsson and coworkers have devised another class of FRET-based semisynthetic biosensors for Zn2+ combined with an AFP and a synthetic fluorophore based on the SNAP-tag labeling Vandetanib cancer technology [63]. Because SNAP-tag fusion protein can be covalently modified with O6-benzylguanine derivatives in living cells [64], the ap
Gas turbine engines in the aerospace industry operate at very challenging levels of performance requiring stable operation of the compressor at all times.

It is very effective in dealing with the failure of links and sea

It is very effective in dealing with the failure of links and searching for the routes. Due to the large number of nodes, the number of ants is quite large so that it may lead to much higher traffic in the network than other algorithms.2.3. Ant RoutingAs an selleck chemical Ruxolitinib effective distributed approach, the ACO algorithms have been introduced to the design of routing protocol and have received many achievements [17�C25].The ACO algorithm was first used in traditional networks [17]. ARA [18] was the first algorithm used Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which exploits the pheromone laying behavior of ants to search for routing. The above two algorithms are however not suitable for WSNs. In [19], Liu et al. used an improved ACO algorithm (PACO) to search for multipaths between source nodes and the sink node in MANETs.

Although the PACO improves the efficiency of data transmission, the number of ants required to search for routing is great, resulting in great energy consumption at the start-up stage. Moreover, the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries PACO only uses the length of path as metric without considering the current energy of nodes: these discovered paths may contain the low energy nodes, which will shorten the working time of the paths.Recently, routing protocols based on ACO for WSNs have been the focus of many studies [20�C25]. In [20], Zhang et al. studied three distinct Ant-based algorithms for WSNs. However, the algorithms Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries only focus on the building of an initial pheromone distribution, and thus, the algorithms are only good at system start-up phase. In [21], Camilo et al.

presented a new Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries WSNs routing algorithm based on ACO, which can minimize
Advances in wireless networking have set new paradigms in computing, including pervasive computing based on a large-scale wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network, a type of ad hoc network (MANets), is designed to be an infrastructure-less, unattended, and rapidly-deployable network. A fundamental issue in wireless sensor network environments is the efficient location of the required service in the network. The service location protocol is imperative Dacomitinib to the design of a wireless sensor network because each network node lacks prior knowledge of the service available in the network [1�C7].Service location in wireless sensor networks is a challenging problem for several reasons. First, due to a lack of infrastructure, there are no well-known servers in a pre-defined network structure.

Second, energy scarcity in a network node in a wireless network necessitates the design of new service location protocols that are qualitatively different from those designed for the Bortezomib 179324-69-7 wired network. Third, in many cases, wireless networks may scale up to thousands of nodes, rendering the location problem even more challenging [8�C20].In pervasive computing, users receive information regarding the environment in real-time; therefore, the sensor network, which is the foundation of pervasive computing, should enable real-time access.

In [7] and [8] a microcontroller-based DAS is used in a remote PV

In [7] and [8] a microcontroller-based DAS is used in a remote PV plant. The measurement system Dasatinib msds uses a silicon-cell pyranometer as a solar radiation sensor. The sensor data is collected by an internal A/D converter of the microcontroller and stored in a serial I2C EEPROM until uploaded to a portable computer. Keeping the DAS in a low-power Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries mode, which is only interrupted when measurements are to be taken or when a computer is connected to retrieve the stored data, it is possible to minimize the power consumption. An on-chip timer provides a way to change operational conditions, whereby changing the low-power wait mode at 10-min intervals to sample and store the data. At the end of each data collection period, the acquired data is transmitted to the computer through a RS-232 serial interface.

In [9] a DAS applied to a PV plant that is capable of delivering 5 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries kWp of electrical power was described. Temperature, irradiance, array voltage and current data are acquired, processed and then transmitted. The system comprises sensors, DAS, wireless access point and computer, enabling users to access the array parameter via a wireless connection. Three current sensors with a maximum current value of 50 A and a sensitivity of 37.8 mV/A, are connected to the dc array output, while irradiance and temperature sensors are placed around the array. For voltage acquisition, a voltage divider was used, which means 10 mV for every one volt of solar panel output. LM35 temperature sensor with sensitivity of 10 mV/��C is used to measure the ambient temperature of the solar panel.

The irradiance is sensed using LDR. The microcontroller serial interface is connected to an EGSR7150 modem in order Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries to convert format data from serial to Ethernet data. Furthermore, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the acquired data is also sent to the Drug_discovery access point of the connected user computer in the form of a Wi-Fi signal (IEEE 802.11 standard).A data transmission technology of ample expansion in the area of telemetry for remote regions is the GSM (Global System Mobile Communications) modem, using GPRS (General Package Radio Service). Currently, this technology is the most popular standard for mobile telephones around the world. GPRS application is a net connection for data package transmission. During a net connection, whereby the system is online, data is transfered immediately and the tariff is only made on the volume of data transmitted without considering the connection time.

As GPRS is compatible with the TCP/IP protocol, GSM operators supply a gateway to the Internet, making it possible to connect and to control wireless equipment in this way. In [10], t
Recently, hydrogen has attracted selleck chemicals llc considerable attention as a clean energy source instead of petroleum. Hydrogen also has many important applications such as its use in the processes of many industries that include the chemical, petroleum, food and semiconductor sectors.

ISENSE current output sensors are usually conditioned employing <

ISENSE current output sensors are usually conditioned employing a resistor in series which converts the current into voltage. Typically these sensors need to be fed and their basic conditioning scheme is similar to those of resistive dividers. Then, with ISENSE connected Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries between P1 and P2, MUX1-MUX2 will be co
Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) estimation using sensor arrays has been an active research area, playing a fundamental role in many applications involving electromagnetic, acoustic, and communication systems [1]. Many classical algorithms are available, and the popular methods include beamforming [2], MUSIC [3], ESPRIT [4] and the maximum likelihood method [5], etc. The beamforming method has low angle resolution and suffers from the Rayleigh resolution limit.
MUSIC, ESPRIT and the maximum likelihood method all rely on the statistical properties of the data, and thus, require a sufficiently large number of samples Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries for accurate estimation. Besides, MUSIC and ESPRIT cannot handle strongly coherent sources, while the maximum likelihood method has high computation costs.The problem of sparse recovery has evolved rapidly recently [6,7] and it has been applied in DOA estimation with array processing. Gorodnitsky et al. [8] used a weighted least-squares algorithm named FOCUSS for DOA estimation, but this algorithm can only be used for single snapshots. Cotter [9] combined multiple measurement vectors (MMV) and matching pursuit (MP) to solve the joint-sparse recovery problem in DOA estimation, but it has low angle resolution.
JLZA-DOA is proposed in [10]; it minimizes a mixed L2,0 norm to deal with the joint-sparse recovery problem, and a fixed point method is used for DOA estimation. This algorithm doesn��t satisfy numerical stability, as matrix inversion is inevitable in every iteration. Stoica et al. [11] presented a novel SParse Iterative Covariance-based Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Estimation approach, abbreviated SPICE. However, this algorithm needs more snapshots to estimate DOA. Wide-band covariance matrix sparse representation (W-CMSR) is proposed in [12] for DOA estimation of wideband signals. So far, the most successful joint-sparse recovery algorithm for DOA estimation is L1-SVD [13,14]. It combines the SVD step of the subspace algorithms with a sparse recovery method based on l2,1 �Cnorm minimization. However, the number of sources needs be known a priori.
In this paper, we present Joint-Sparse DOA estimation, abbreviated as JSDOA, for sensor array DOA Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries estimation. First, DOA estimation is cast as a joint-sparse recovery problem. Then, L2,0 norm is approximated AV-951 by the arctan function to represent spatial sparsity and DOA estimation can be obtained by minimizing the approximate L2,0 norm. Finally, the minimization problem is solved ZD6474 by a quasi-Newton method to estimate DOA. The proposed algorithm has some advantages over most existing methods: it needs a small number of snapshots to estimate DOA, an the number of sources need not be known a priori.

Herein we present the evaluation of the feasibility of a glycopep

Herein we present the evaluation of the feasibility of a glycopeptide-based biosensor to detect MS specific antibodies in sera by a SPR assay. The glycopeptide CSF114(Glc) has been immobilized on a gold sensor chip and used for the screening of healthy blood donors’ inhibitor Tofacitinib and MS patients’ serum samples. SPR-assay data are compared with the previously validated ELISA method.2.?Experimental Section2.1. ReagentsGlycopeptide antigen CSF114(Glc) was prepared by microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis. The glycopeptide was purified to homogeneity by solid phase extraction and reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and further characterized by mass spectrometry and analytical HPLC as described elsewhere [37].Sensor chip CM5 and the running buffer HBS-EP+ 10�� (0.1 M HEPES, 1.
5 M NaCl, 30 mM EDTA and 0.5% v/v Surfactant P20; yielded pH 7.4 when diluted) were purchased from Biacore AB (GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden). The amine coupling reagents N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), and 1 M ethanolamine hydrochloride-NaOH pH 8.5 were provided by Biacore Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries AB (GE Healthcare). Sodium acetate was purchased from Carlo Erba (Milano, Italy). Sodium hydroxide was provided by Honeywell-Riedel deHaen (Seelze, Germany). All analyses were performed in a Biacore T100 instrument (GE Healthcare). All experiments were made at Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 25 ��C using HBS-EP+ as running buffer.2.2. Serum CollectionOne hundred and twenty one human serum samples were obtained for diagnostic purposes from patients and healthy blood donors who had given their informed consent.
Each serum sample was Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries centrifuged and supernatant aliquoted and stored at ?20 ��C until use. Patients’ sera were obtained from a Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries group of 61 relapsing��remitting MS (RR-MS) patients after a diagnostic lumbar puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and MRI examinations were performed for diagnostic purposes.2.3. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)A stock solution of glycopeptide CSF114(Glc) was prepared in pure water (1 ��g/��L) and stored at +4 ��C. Immediately prior to immobilization procedure, peptide stock solution was diluted to a concentration of 10 ��g/mL in 0.1 mM sodium acetate pH 5.5. Standard amine coupling procedure was employed for Drug_discovery glycopeptide immobilization, essentially according to the Biacore procedures.
chemical information The appropriate flow cell of the sensor chip surface was activated by injecting an EDC/NHS (50:50) mixture at a flow rate 10 ��L/min during 420 s. CSF114(Glc) was injected at 10 ��L/min using the aim of immobilization procedure to give a final immobilization level of 800 �� 100 Resonance Units (RU). Unreacted groups on sensor chip surface were blocked by injecting 60 s-pulses of 1 M ethanolamine at pH 8.5 until complete deactivation. Reference channel was activated and subsequently blocked with ethanolamine.

The possibility of inscribing a Bragg grating in conventional opt

The possibility of inscribing a Bragg grating in conventional optical fibers (FBG), opens a new field for optical sensing, selleck chemicals llc being the subject of considerable research in recent years due to their advantages over conventional electronic Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries devices. When used in structural monitoring, FBG sensors can monitor deformations and stresses in reinforced concrete elements, urban infrastructures, the curing process of concrete and mortars, RH, pH level, in geodynamic applications, among other variables and applications [33].In this work we present an innovative RH sensor based on FBGs coated with an organo-silica hybrid material known as di-ureasil [34], which will be used to monitor the RH level in concrete blocks exposed to environmental conditions, demonstrating Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries its ability to be used in structure health monitoring (SHM) applications.
This paper is organized as follows: after an introduction showing the requirements Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and advantages of optical fiber sensors, namely those based on FBG’s, over conventional methods and devices, a brief description of FBG’s and how they have been used as RH sensors is described Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in Section 2. The experimental procedure for the implementation of the proposed sensor is described at Section 3, with three sub-sections referring to the hybrid material production, the FBG coating and the sensor characterization. Section 4 shows the results of a real field application of this type of sensor in SHM. Finally, in Section 5, the main conclusions are presented.2.
?Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and RH SensorsA Bragg grating is a passive optical device based on the refractive index modulation of the optical fiber core, created through AV-951 the exposure of the fiber optics core to an optical interference pattern of ultraviolet radiation.The operation principle of a FBG is based on the signal reflection in each plane of the periodic structure. When the Bragg condition is match, all the reflected components are in phase and are added, otherwise, the components are out of phase and vanished. The Bragg wavelength, ��B, at which the central wavelength of the reflection mode satisfies the first order Bragg condition, is given by:��B=2��neff(1)where �� is the refractive index modulation period and neff is the optical fiber core effective refractive index [33]. The Bragg wavelength depends both on the neff and �� and, therefore, any external disturbance acting on these parameters can be measured by analyzing the Bragg wavelength of the reflected signal.
The application of a mechanical deformation selleck Sunitinib or a temperature variation gives rise to a change in the refractive index and in the period values.Several methods can be used to induce the fiber core refractive index modulation, being the most frequent ones the phase mask recording, the interferometric method, and the interferometric method with phase mask [33]. The latter one was selected to be used in the present work.

ence imaging Ligands induce specific intracellular relocalizatio

ence imaging. Ligands induce specific intracellular relocalization selleck chemical CHIR99021 of GFP ERa GFP ERa can be visualized in SK19 cells using conven tional wide field microscopy. SK19 cells were cultured on conventional glass microscopy coverslips in phenol Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries red free media for 3 days. Culture conditions were identical to conditions used for cell fractionation, immu noblotting or RNA extraction prior to RT qPCR. Figure 3A shows representative images of SK19 cells treated or not with E2, SERMs and SERDs. We note that in the SK19 cell line GFP ERa was excluded from the nucleoli, as previously observed for the cellular distribution of endogenous ERa in MCF 7 cells and of transiently transfected GFP ERa, under all conditions tested. Exposure times were identical for all conditions examined by fluorescence microscopy.

In untreated cells, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ERa was uniformly distributed in the nucleus, to the DAPI nuclear stain in Figure 3Aa A linear scan across the entire field including cytoplasm and nucleus shows that the cytoplasmic GFP ERa fluorescence was barely above background which correlates with observations from cell fractionation experiments. In the presence of E2, GFP ERa rapidly relocalized to accumulate in numerous foci scattered throughout the nucleoplasm. In Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries E2 treated cells, no GFP ERa fluorescence could be detected in the cytoplasm. In contrast, after 1 h treatment with SERMs, OHT or RU39, we did not observe any intranuclear reorganiza tion of GFP ERa compared to untreated cells. This observation also correlates with our fractionation experi ments.

GFP ERa staining remained diffuse with fluores cence Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries intensity comparable to mock cells. However, again no cytoplasmic GFP ERa could be detected. The distribution of the intensity of the fluorescent sig nals was determined within nuclei excluding the nucleo lus. The frequency Anacetrapib of pixels with respect to their intensity allows to calculate a coefficient of variation. In cells treated with SERMs the CV was compar able to the one in control cells while the CV was 2 to 3 fold higher in cells exposed to E2 or SERDs. This quantitive measure strengthens our observation that ERa accumulates in intranuclear foci when bound to E2 or SERDs but not in the presence of SERMs. Upon exposure to SERDs, both ICI and RU58, GFP ERa accumulated at numerous sites, reminiscent of the ones observed in the presence of E2.

We ascertained that the fluorescent foci detected in SK19 cells correspond to an accumulation of endoge neous ERa selleck chemicals llc using immuno electron microscopy of MCF 7 cells. Several immunogold labeled ERa molecules were frequently detected within 100 nm distance from each other in 80 nm thin sections of E2 or ICI treated cells. In addition, in SK19 cells, the maximum fluorescence intensity measured after E2 and ICI treatments decreased by 20 40% as compared to untreated cells consistent with degradation of GFP ERa. The effects of ICI and RU58 were indistinguishable suggesting that both molecules operate via similar molecular mechanisms despite si

onversion of LC3I to LC3II leads to accumulation of LC3I and redu

onversion of LC3I to LC3II leads to accumulation of LC3I and reduction of total amount of LC3II. This is consistent with the report that autophagosomes can be formed in the absence of intact regular microtubules, but at a significantly lower extent. After autophagosomes mature, they fuse with lysosomes to form inhibitor Vandetanib autolysosomes. Lysosomes distribute throughout the cytoplasm through anterograde and retrograde move ment. Our results show that regular non acetylated microtubules seem to play no role in the process since their interruption did Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries not cause accumulation of LC3II in the absence of lysosomal inhibitor. This indicates the pre sence of highly specific cytoskeletal elements are involved in the trafficking of autophagosomes and lysosomes involved in autophagy.

HADC6 is a microtubular deacetylase and regulates microtubule stability. Inhibition of HADC6 enhances microtubular acetylation leading to antero grade trafficking of lysosomes away Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from centrosomes in addition to an inhibition of autophagosomal biogen esis. Since microtubular acetylation causes the recruitment of the molecular motors dynein and kine sin 1 to microtubules, acetylated microtubules may serve for not only the kinesin dependent antero grade trafficking but also the dynein dependent retro grade trafficking Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of either lysosomes or autophagosomes. In addition to the opposite roles in polymerization depolymerization of regular microtubules by direct bind ing to b tubulin, paclitaxel and nocodazole have oppo site effects in Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the acetylation of a tubulin and stabilization of acetylated microtubules.

Paclitaxel enhances, but nocodazole inhibits a tubulin acetylation and stabilization of acetylated GSK-3 microtubules. However, both of them fail to block autophagosomal degradation. Both paclitaxel and vinblastine enhance the levels of a tubulin acetylation, but exhibit opposite effects on the polymerization of acetylated microtubules and also opposite roles in autophagosomal degradation. These results suggest that it is not the levels of acetylated a tubulin that affect autophagosomal degradation. Similar to paclitaxel, nocodazole does not damage the integrity of acetylated microtubules although the total levels of acetylated a tubulin are reduced. Vinblastine enhances the levels of acetylated a tubulin, but causes depolymerization of both regular and acetylated micro tubules.

The treatment not only blocks fusion of LC3II assoiated autophagosomes with lysosomes, but also reduces efficiency of the LC3I to LC3II conversion simi lar to paclitaxel or nocodazole. It nearly seems that regular microtubules are involved in, but not essential for the conversion of LC3I to LC3II and degradation of LC3II while acetylated microtubules are required for trafficking of either mature autophagosomes or lysosomes. When autolysosomes were preserved by treatment with bafilo mycin A1, a dramatic decrease of number of autolyso somes was observed in cells treated with vinblastine. Our results also confirmed reports that lysos

nd equal amounts of protein were separated in SDS PAGE and Tyr701

nd equal amounts of protein were separated in SDS PAGE and Tyr701 phosphorylation was analyzed by selleckchem EPZ-5676 using phospho Tyr701 STAT1 specific antibody. The pSTAT1 anti body detected the Tyr701 phosphorylation of STAT1 E705Q, while the STAT1 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries E705A showed only a weak signal and the antibody failed to detect IFN stimulated STAT1 K703R. The differ ence is likely to be caused by the altered amino acid sequence within or in the proximity of the epitope for the pSTAT1 antibody since another pSTAT1 antibody readily detected also K703R and E705A mutants after pervanadate stimulation. The SUMO deficient STAT1 mutant E705Q was chosen for further DNA binding studies. In order to study the DNA binding properties of STAT1, we performed oligoprecipitation experiments using two biotinylated oligos, one containing STAT1 binding site from Gbp 1 promoter and another with STAT1 binding site from Irf 1 gene promoter.

U3A cells were transfected either with HA tagged STAT1 WT or STAT1 E705Q or STAT1 Y701F mutants together with His tagged SUMO 1. Cells were left unstimulated or treated with IFN and osmotic shock to induce STAT1 Tyr701 phosphorylation and STAT1 sumoylation, re spectively. STAT1 WT and the STAT1 mutants were oligoprecipitated from the whole cell lysates and the phosphorylation Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of STAT1 was detected with anti pSTAT1 antibody. Sumoylation deficient STAT1 E705Q showed increased binding to both oligos when compared to STAT1 WT. In the lysates the E705Q mutant was slightly less tyro sine phosphorylated than STAT1 WT, indicating that the increased DNA binding of STAT1 E705Q is not a consequence of its altered Tyr701 phosphorylation.

Restaining the membranes from Figure 3A with anti HA antibody also showed that more STAT1 E705Q was bound to DNA when com Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries pared to STAT1 WT. The result was verified by quantitating the intensities of the oligoprecipitated STAT1 bands that were normalized against total amount of input STAT1 or against the amount of Tyr701 phosphorylated STAT1. Furthermore, overexpression of SUMO 1 hindered STAT1 WT binding to Irf 1 oligo in U3A cells, providing further proof that sumoylation inhibits STAT1 DNA binding. Of note, additional oligoprecipitation experiments were carried out with larger protein amounts that would allow detection of sumoylated STAT1. In this experi mental setting, sumoylation was not detected in the DNA bound fraction of STAT1, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries while SUMO 1 conjuga tion was readily observed in equal amount of cellular STAT1.

These results suggest that sumoylated STAT1 does not bind to DNA Batimastat or that the DNA binding of sumoylated STAT1 under is sig nificantly diminished. Promoter bound STAT1 dimer is known to inter act with histone acetyl transferase CREB binding pro tein and acetylation of histones is essential for STAT1 mediated transcriptional activation. Next, we wanted to investigate whether the enhanced DNA binding of sumoylation deficient STAT1 has functional consequences at the promoter level. To this end, we per formed chromatin immunoprecipitation