Previously it was shown that a missense mutation of Gly171 result

Previously it was shown that a missense mutation of Gly171 results in impaired binding of both sclerostin and DKK1 [9] and [14], which allows us to assume that deletion of this and its flanking amino acid will have a similar effect. This

supports the hypothesis that, besides the third β-propeller domain of LRP5 [10], the first β-propeller domain of the protein also has a critical role in the binding of sclerostin and DKKs. In accordance with the hypothesis raised by Bhat and colleagues [18] the deletion of the Gly171 and Glu172 residues could alter the three-dimensional structure of the receptor, thus determining a reduction in the affinity for its inhibitory ligands. Overall, this disease could be ascribed to a “gain of function” not with regard to the LRP5 protein itself, but to the entire signalling pathway, which turns out to be activated TSA HDAC in vitro even in the presence of its inhibitory factors. The proband herein described was a middle-aged woman who suffered

symptoms possibly related to the disease while in her teens, whereas the diagnosis of osteopetrosis was made at menopause when the clinical symptoms had started worsening. Her daughter was found to be osteopetrotic after radiological examination, however BTK inhibitor order she does not present any symptoms. Although it is likely that she carries the same mutation as her mother, confirmation through molecular analysis was not possible. Our data, together with those already reported in the literature, conclude that at variance with ADO II, in which several cases of early onset of the disease are documented [19] and [20], ADO I symptoms most frequently arise in adulthood, after the first radiological signs. In addition, ADO I patients do not display impairment of the haematological compartment,

even though the canonical Wnt signalling is known to play an important role in haematopoiesis, and rarely present visual deficits, while these defects can be very evident in some ADO II patients. Interestingly, our patient did show a complete Methane monooxygenase and abrupt occurrence of blindness at early age, although the exact cause could not be documented at that time (more than 40 years ago). All these findings confirm the original observation of Bollerslev and Andersen [1] that ADO I and ADO II are two distinct entities both from a clinical and molecular point of view. The canonical Wnt signalling has been reported to regulate key checkpoints in the development of many tissues, and among them, also in lymphopoiesis [21]. Even though in other forms of osteopetrosis both primary and secondary immunological defects have been described, no impairment of the immune system has been documented in ADO I patients, including ours, possibly due to the high redundancy of this pathway.

From 2000 to 2010 the FAO

From 2000 to 2010 the FAO click here landings of sharks declined only slightly (by 2.3%) to 383,236 t. Assuming that both discards and IUU fishing declined by a similar fraction between 2000 and 2010, one would estimate total mortality in 2010 at 1,412,000 t,

or between 97 and 267 million sharks, depending on the chosen scenario of species composition and average weights. Using the above estimates, combined with independent figures, a total exploitation rate U (catches over biomass, in percent per year) for global shark populations was calculated ( Table 4). The global biomass of elasmobranchs before the era of modern fishing was estimated by Jennings et al. [18] as 86,260,000 t. Assuming that half of these elasmobranchs

are sharks, a biomass before fishing of 43,130,000 t of sharks was estimated. Conservatively assuming 50% depletion of sharks over the history of modern fishing, a contemporary biomass estimate of 21,565,000 t of sharks was derived. Total mortality was estimated to be 1,445,000 t in 2000 ( Fig. 2), Caspase activity which when divided by total biomass, yields an estimated exploitation rate of 6.7% per year ( Table 4). Using an alternative mortality estimate of 1,700,000 t, a figure that was independently derived from the fin trade [9], an annual exploitation rate of 7.9% was computed. Averaging across actual exploitation rates from published stock assessments and other sources given in Table 5, an independent estimate of 6.4% exploitation rate was derived. These three estimates are remarkably similar, considering that they were derived by entirely independent sources using different assumptions. Comparing actual exploitation rates (Table 5; Fig. 3A) to calculated rebound rates of shark populations in general (Fig. 3B), cAMP and individual shark populations for which exploitation rates were estimated in particular (Fig. 3C), it was found that exploitation rates (Fig. 3A, Median U=0.064) on average exceed the median rebound rates ( Fig. 3B, Median r=0.049) by about 30%, which is

unsustainable over the long term. Notably, the rebound rates for most species were significantly below the three independent estimates of exploitation rates derived in this paper ( Table 4). This suggests that the majority of shark populations will continue to decline under current fishing pressure ( Fig. 3C). The primary goal of this paper was to estimate total catch and fishing-related mortality for sharks worldwide, and to derive an average exploitation rate from these estimates (Table 4). Due to the limited availability of data, particularly for shark discards, this work required a number of assumptions, as detailed above. Yet it allows placement of lower and upper limits on global shark mortality, here estimated to range from 63 to 273 million sharks, with a conservative estimate of ∼100 million sharks in the year 2000, or ∼97 million in 2010.

The expectation is also to search for modulate, or minimize the t

The expectation is also to search for modulate, or minimize the toxic symptoms, while preserving the pro-erectile effect. Another approach, also based in this prediction model, is coming out

by using a smaller synthetic PARP inhibitor review peptide, able to mimics the action of the toxin, improving erectile function, without eliciting, or minimizing side effects. At present, our group successfully synthesized a peptide that relaxes slices of corpus cavernosum from rat and it did not show any apparent toxicity in high tested doses (100 μg) in mice. Studies are in progress to verify the mechanism of action and the real efficacy and low toxicity of this peptide and its potential use as a pro-erectile drug model. Few clinical events of priapism caused by other spiders have been reported in literature. One of them refers to a young boy who was stung by a widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) and presented priapism, along with other symptoms like prolonged pain and hypertension ( Quan and Ruha, 2009). However, it seems that Endocrinology antagonist priapism is quite uncommon in envenomation by widow spiders. Stings from all scorpions from Buthidae family,

except for Hemiscorpion ( Bawaskar and Bawaskar, 2012), may cause priapism, particularly in children ( Bahloul et al., 2010). The venom of the African scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus and the scorpion Buthus martensi Karsh relaxed rat isolated anococcygeus muscle via NO release ( Gwee et al., 1995; Srinivasan et al., 2001). However, when considering scorpions, only toxins extracted from T. serrulatus scorpion venom have been investigated as a pharmacological tool in the study of penile erection. This venom is known to act on nerve endings stimulating the click here release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine ( Gomez et al., 1973), which activate eNOS in endothelial cells. In addition, it has been demonstrated that this venom relaxes rabbit and human CC ( Teixeira et al., 1998, 2001). Nevertheless, the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine does not affect

T. serrulatus-induced cavernosal relaxation. In both, rabbit and human CC, the typical sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin specifically inhibited the venom-induced relaxation, suggesting the participation of sodium channels ( Teixeira et al., 1998). These authors also suggested that NO release is involved in the potentiation of erectile function by T. serrulatus venom and some of its fractions. It has been demonstrated that the toxin Ts3, from this scorpion, induces human CC relaxation, similar to that evoked by acetylcholine or electric field stimulation ( Teixeira et al., 2004a and Teixeira et al., 2004b). Ts3 binds on site 3 of the sodium channels ( Martin-Eauclaire et al., 1994) and slows-down the kinetics of inactivation ( Campos et al., 2008).

Figs 1(a) (SnT condition) and 2(b) (FST condition) show particip

Figs. 1(a) (SnT condition) and 2(b) (FST condition) show participant-based results from univariate Searchlight analysis, as MVPA is essentially a single-subject analysis. Fig. 1(c) shows group-based results from the two conditions.

For the situational non-translation (SnT) language switching condition, we found two large and some small clusters in the results of the univariate Searchlight. The peak of the first cluster was located in the left fusiform gyrus, and that of the second one was found in the right inferior occipital gyrus. The other small clusters were distributed in the right superior temporal gyrus, the right precuneus, and the left superior temporal gyrus. For the focused simultaneous translation (FST) language-switch condition, the most informative voxels were concentrated in the left fusiform gyrus, the left cerebellum and the left lingual gyrus. Other large clusters observed were in the right lingual gyrus, the right middle occipital gyrus and the right calcarine. One small cluster was also found in the left middle temporal gyrus and the supramarginal gyrus. The GLM analysis also revealed some significant clusters for the following contrasts (Table 1 and Fig. 1(d)). For the SnT condition, we use the acronyms “k2k-vs-c2c”

standing for “Korean (as stimulus) to Korean (as task)” versus “Chinese (as stimulus) to Chinese (as task)”, and “c2c-vs-k2k”, meaning “Chinese (as stimulus) to Chinese (as task)” versus “Korean (as stimulus) to Korean (as task)”. Bcl-xL protein For the FST condition, we use the acronym “c2k-vs-k2c” standing for “Chinese (as stimulus)

to Korean (as task)” versus Cell press “Korean (as stimulus) to Chinese (as task)”. The contrast of the opposite direction is noted here as “k2c-vs-c2k” following the same notation. k2k-vs-c2c: significant activation was found in the left middle frontal gyrus (Broca’s area), the left precentral and the left caudate. c2c-vs-k2k: we found that the right superior frontal gyrus, the left postcentral as well as the left medial superior frontal gyrus were activated at the peak level but were not significant at a cluster level. k2c-vs-c2k: this condition significantly activated a wide range of brain regions distributed in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas. The strongly activated areas were the left middle frontal gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the left middle temporal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, the left inferior parietal gyrus, the left postcentral, and the right postcentral. c2k-vs-k2c: the occipital regions of the brain were significantly activated, including the left middle occipital gyrus, the left inferior occipital gyrus and the right superior occipital gyrus. In the present study, we focused on Korean–Chinese early bilinguals and language-switching tasks to explore the nature of bilingualism.

Consequently, the interviewer then posed more elaborate questions

Consequently, the interviewer then posed more elaborate questions about the subject and had to back-translate the resulting graphical model to ensure that it represents the views of the stakeholder. Successful widespread use of the interview methods probably requires more methodological research and a training programme for the interviewers. Concluding from the feedback questionnaires (extended peer review), the six stakeholders saw several benefits

in the participatory modelling approach, highlighting the potential of the approach to – improve stock assessments and management by enabling to account for factors that have not necessarily been taken into accounted in other assessment methodologies Challenges or pitfalls that the stakeholders saw in the approach relate to – the subjective approach of the Bayesian Proteasome purification method Some of the challenges pinpointed by the stakeholders indicate that properties of the Bayesian reasoning and purpose of the modelling may not have been understood correctly. References to small sample sizes and noise from inclusion of too many factors reveal that the Bayesian

approach was assumed to work in the same way as classical statistics. selleck screening library Seeing the subjectivity of the method as a challenge in participatory modelling is surprising, since it is the inherent subjectivity of the knowledge that is the motivation for any participatory modelling. If there existed an objective way to make inductive inference, knowledge of experts of any kind would not be relevant. Future impact of the work achieved depends on whether the ICES working group dealing with Baltic herring stock assessment is willing to take the ideas and results into account. The Mediterranean swordfish stock is considered to be over-exploited; current spawning stock biomass levels are >40% lower than those that would support maximum sustainable yield [69]. The biological and management situation is complex: Mediterranean swordfish is assessed as a single stock but there are indications that it consists

of several independent sub-stocks with unknown rate of mixing. The stock–recruitment relationship is not Clomifene well defined; catch misreporting of undersized fish is considered to be a problem; and there is a large amount (50–70%) of juveniles in the catches [70]. The exploitation pattern of swordfish fisheries is complex and difficult to manage, with several small- and medium scale fisheries from various EU and Non-EU Mediterranean countries. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT, the relevant management authority) asked for an evaluation of the impact of different recovery measures, such as temporary closures, effort control (e.g., capacity reduction) and quota management schemes. ICCAT and various EU groups have discussed the potential application of various management measures.

In order to ensure benefits to the local economy, the Raja Ampat<

In order to ensure benefits to the local economy, the Raja Ampat

regency government developed a tourism entrance fee system in 2007 that requires every guest visiting the regency to pay Rp. 500,000 (approximately USD $55) for a waterproof tag valid for the calendar year. Thirty percent of the tag revenues are utilized by the government for tourism PI3K inhibitor management, while 70% fund conservation and community development programs in all 135 villages of Raja Ampat. Since its inception, the fee system has accrued nearly USD $1,000,000 and has funded a nutrition program for pregnant and nursing mothers and MPA enforcement and turtle rookery guarding programs. Kaimana Regency and the Cendrawasih Bay National Park have recently commenced their own entrance fee systems. The Raja Ampat government enacted legislation in July 2011 to establish the first marine tourism licensing

system in Indonesia, setting an upper limit of 40 liveaboard dive vessel and 20 dive resort licenses for the regency while also stipulating strong requirements for environmentally-sensitive construction of resorts and employment of local community members in tourism operations. Both the West Papua provincial government and the Raja Ampat regency Selleck Alectinib government have now explicitly recognized marine tourism as one of the main sectors for economic development of the regency, and increasingly this sector is providing benefits to local communities not only through entrance fee revenues, but also through direct employment in resorts and on dive vessels as well as through providing important markets for sale of handicrafts and Gemcitabine molecular weight of fish, fruits and vegetables harvested by community members. The largest mariculture industry in the BHS is pearl oyster farming. There are currently two large pearl farms in Kaimana and seven pearl farms in Raja Ampat. The pearl farms focus exclusively on silver and gold pearls from the oyster Pinctada maxima. The industry operates in sheltered bays with unpolluted

waters, low sedimentation, high dissolved nutrient levels, good water exchange and relatively stable cool water temperatures. Pearl farming companies enter into private lease agreements with local Papuan communities over large areas of water, generally have low environmental impact and can provide strong socioeconomic benefits for local communities. Cendana Indopearls for example, employs around 200 staff, provides training and livelihoods for many members of the community, and supplies electricity, transportation, medical services and schooling for the two local communities in Raja Ampat with whom they have their lease agreements. While the overall contribution of pearl farms to the local economy is not known, it is estimated that Cendana Indopearls invests nearly USD $3 million per annum into the local economy in the form of operational costs, salaries, rents, royalties and taxes (J. Taylor, personal communication).

Finally, sodium chloride (halite)

precipitates in crystal

Finally, sodium chloride (halite)

precipitates in crystallizer ponds at TDS ∼ 300–350 g l− 1 (Gongora et al. 2005). According to the duration of operation, Oligomycin A saltworks have been divided into continuous and seasonal. The first maintain a salinity gradient throughout their ponds and produce salt continuously during the entire year. The second maintain a salinity gradient and produce salt only during the summer (Davis 2000). Solar salterns are not just salt production plants; they also function as integrated saline wetlands of a unique coastal aquatic ecosystem that combines considerable environmental heterogeneity with a steep salinity gradient (Costa et al. 1996). The planktonic and benthic communities PI3K Inhibitor Library purchase of marine organisms (e.g. bacteria, algae, copepods, molluscs, worms) that develop along with the increasing salinity gradient in the evaporating ponds and crystallizers of saltworks create a biological system that can help or harm salt production (Davis 1993). The development of planktonic species that are adapted to narrow salinity ranges aid salt production by colouring the water to improve solar energy absorption and water evaporation, as well as by creating and maintaining appropriate quantities of organic substances that power the entire biological system at the desired

level. Benthic communities seal ponds against water leakage and infiltration, permanently remove excess quantities of nitrogen and phosphate from the overlying water and maintain desired thicknesses in all ponds (Davis 2000). On the other hand, mats of unicellular cyanobacteria that exist in the brine sometimes

produce massive amounts of polysaccharide slime which adversely affects salt production process (Davis & Giordano 1996). Because of the importance of phytoplankton in salt Etofibrate production, their community structure and distribution have been studied in several solar saltworks all over the world (Ayadi et al., 2004, Dolapsakis et al., 2005 and Chatchawan et al., 2011). Although there are many saltern ecosystems in Egypt, few studies have reported the community structure and ecological function of their biological system. Taher et al. (1995) was the only study that investigated the microbial mats in the sediments in the salina system of Port Fouad. The main objective of the present study was to provide new information on the composition and abundance of phytoplankton population in ponds of different salinity in a solar saltern in Port Fouad, Egypt. Species substitution with salinity gradient and the range of salt-tolerance of the different phytoplankton taxa was considered. The study was conducted in the solar saltern (El Nasr Salina Company) situated on the extreme north-eastern coast of Sinai (about 31°12′ to 31°14′N and 32°18′ to 32°20′E). It is an artificial system formed of interconnected ponds of different salinities, from that of seawater up to sodium chloride saturation.

The experiments were designed in such a way that the number of an

The experiments were designed in such a way that the number of animals used and their selleck chemicals llc suffering was minimized. The chemically synthesized NOD1 agonist FK565 was provided by Astellas Pharma Inc. (Ibaraki, Japan) (Watanabe et al., 1985). MDP (N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine hydrate, catalogue number A9519, Sigma–Aldrich, Vienna, Austria) was used as synthetic NOD2 agonist and LPS extracted from Escherichiacoli 0127:B8 (purified by gel-filtration chromatography,

catalogue number L3137, Sigma–Aldrich, Vienna, Austria) was used as a TLR4 agonist. The experiments were started after the animals had become accustomed to the institutional animal house over the course of at least 2 weeks. Prior to the behavioral tests, the mice were allowed to adapt to the test room (lights on at 6:00 h, lights off at 18:00 h, set points 22 °C and 50% relative air humidity, maximal light intensity 100 lux) for at least one day. The pattern of locomotion, exploration, feeding as well as sucrose preference (SP) were assessed with the LabMaster system (TSE Systems, Bad Homburg, Germany), allowing

continuous recording of the animals without intervention by any investigator, as described previously NVP-BKM120 research buy (Painsipp et al., 2013). The LabMaster system consisted of test cages (type III, 42.0 × 26.5 × 15.0 cm, length × width × height), surrounded by two external infrared frames and a cage lid equipped with three weight transducers. For recording locomotion and exploration, the two external infrared frames were positioned in a horizontal manner above one another at a distance of 4.3 cm, with the lower frame being fixed 2.0 cm above the bedding floor. The bottom frame was used Bumetanide to record horizontal locomotion of the mice, whereas the top frame served to record vertical movements (rearing, exploration). The measures of activity (locomotion, exploration) were derived from the light beam interruptions (counts) of the corresponding

infrared frames (Painsipp et al., 2013). The three weight transducers were employed to quantify ingestive behavior. To this end, a feeding bin was filled with standard rodent chow (altromin 1324 FORTI, Altromin, Lage, Germany). In order to assess SP, one drinking bottle was filled with tap water and one with a 1% sucrose solution and the bottles were each attached to a transducer on the cage lid for the total duration of the experiment. SP was calculated using the formula: sucrose intake/(sucrose intake + water intake). In a few cases in which the fluid bottles got obstructed, the data were excluded from analysis. Each test parameter was collected over a 24 h interval and activity scores and food intake recorded during the day before injection were set as 100%, and the daily scores measured post-injection expressed as a percentage of the pre-injection score.

The FA mixture also promoted an increase in intracellular Ca2+ mo

The FA mixture also promoted an increase in intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and in the proliferative capacity of B-lymphocytes. Treatment of cells with the antioxidant ASTA partially decreased the oxidative stress imposed by the FA mixture. Ca2+ signaling is essential for diverse biological processes. Ca2+ ions are especially

suited as intracellular second messengers because of the strong homeostatic mechanisms that maintain intracellular Enzalutamide cell line free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in resting cells at 100 nM or less. In the face of extracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]o) that are four orders of magnitude higher (1–2 mM). Cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations are maintained at low levels primarily through the action of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs) that pump Ca2+ out of the cell across the plasma membrane. Additionally, the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs) pumps Ca2+ into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the longer term (hours), Birinapant chemical structure sustained Ca2+ entry is critical for essentially all responses initiated through T cell, B cell, and Fc receptors, including proliferation and cytokine production by T cells, cytokine production by mast cells and natural killer (NK) cells, differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, and the differentiation of naive T cells into Th1,

Th2, and Th17 effectors subtypes (Hogan et al., 2010). As showed in our work, intracellular calcium concentration was exceptionally enhanced and sustained during 20 min of monitoring in cells treated with FA mixture (Fig. 2) and addition of ASTA to FA-treated cells was unable to restore calcium to basal Doxorubicin levels. At the same time, proliferative capacity of lymphocytes

was increased by the presence of FA mixture, and ASTA addition restored proliferative capacity of lymphocytes to control values (Fig. 1). Based on this data we are able to suggest that proliferative response of lymphocytes, which is a well-known calcium-dependent process is not the only mechanism involved in this process since ASTA decreased proliferative capacity of cells treated with FA but did not reduce intracellular calcium concentration. It has been shown that ASTA is a potent inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, inhibiting the MAPK pathway, decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK and MEK pathway, down regulating the NF-κB activation and ERK1/2 and pMSK-1 pathway (Lee et al., 2003 and Kim et al., 2010). Whether ASTA is reducing lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of key proteins implicated in the process of lymphocyte proliferation remains to be elucidated.

Związane z tym było 1 504 hospitalizacji Koszty pośrednie chorob

Związane z tym było 1 504 hospitalizacji. Koszty pośrednie choroby oszacowano na 144,50 € dla zachorowań występujących u pacjentów poniżej 18 roku życia i 1 043,40 € dla pacjentów w wieku 18–65 lat [35, 36]. Globalne koszty poniesione w związku z zachorowaniami na ospę wietrzną oszacowano na 148 mln €, z czego 79,5% stanowiły koszty buy Alectinib utraconej produktywności. W Niemczech roczny koszt związany z zachorowaniami na ospę wietrzną przed wprowadzeniem szczepień masowych szacowano na 187,5 mln €, z czego 82% stanowiły koszty pośrednie. Medyczne koszty bezpośrednie wyniosły

34 mln € rocznie [37]. Szczepienia przeciwko ospie zostały poddane kompleksowej ocenie ekonomicznej. Wyniki analiz ekonomicznych w zależności od przyjętych założeń i perspektywy oceny wskazują na opłacalność lub oszczędności netto uzyskiwane przez tę interwencję [31]. Sukces szczepień przeciw ospie wietrznej w USA spowodował

włączenie tego szczepienia do narodowych programów szczepień w wielu krajach Europy. Aktualnie rekomendowane są różne strategie profilaktyki ospy wietrznej. Cypr, Grecja, Malta, Niemcy, Sycylia i autonomiczny region UK-371804 in vivo Madryt wprowadziły powszechne szczepienia do swoich programów szczepień. Inne kraje (Austria, Belgia, Finlandia, Francja, Węgry, Włochy, Polska, Szwajcaria, Szwecja, Wielka Brytania) objęły szczepieniami grupy ryzyka oraz osoby wrażliwe na zakażenie [38, 39]. Obecnie w tych krajach rekomendowane są szczepienia przeciw ospie wietrznej u dzieci z grup wysokiego ryzyka (np.: przy planowanej transplantacji, chemioterapii i immunosupresji1), seronegatywnych osób z otoczenia dzieci z grup ryzyka, seronegatywnych dziewcząt DCLK1 i kobiet w wieku rozrodczym, personel medyczny i pedagogiczny, w szczególności pionu pediatrycznego, młodzież wrażliwa na zakażenie po ekspozycji, seronegatywne kobiety po pierwszej ciąży [38]. W Bułgarii, Chorwacji, Czechach, Danii,

Estonii, Hiszpanii, Holandii, Islandii, Irlandii, Litwie, Luksemburgu, Łotwie, Norwegii, Portugalii, Rumunii, Słowacji, Słowenii i Turcji szczepienia przeciw ospie wietrznej aktualnie nie są refundowane [38]. W krajach, w których wprowadzono powszechne szczepienia przeciw ospie wietrznej stwierdzono wyraźną redukcję liczby zachorowań, hospitalizacji, wizyt ambulatoryjnych i zgonów z powodu ospy wietrznej [40, 41]. W oparciu o niemieckie dane epidemiologiczne obliczono konsekwencje odraczania decyzji wprowadzenia powszechnego szczepienia przeciw ospie wietrznej, którymi jest wystąpienie ponad 700 tys. zachorowań, prawie 40 tys. powikłań, 5 740 hospitalizacji i 22 zgonów na rok, przy 800 tys. kohorcie urodzeniowej [42].