The STE III (a single compound) was confirmed as a known sucrose

The STE III (a single compound) was confirmed as a known sucrose tetraester. Furthermore, the STE II was found to contain three isomers and the structures were first unambiguously established Selumetinib in vitro as 6O-acetyl (2,3 or 2,4 or 3,4)-di-O-3-methylvaleryl-(4 or 3 or 2)-O-2-methylbutyryl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside. Finally, the STE I was discovered to contain seven isomers and the structures were elucidated as 6-O-acetyl (2 or 3 or 4)-O-3-methylvaleryl-(3,4 or 2,4 or 2,3)-di-O-2-methylbutyryl-alpha-Dglucopyranosyl-b-D-fructofuranoside, 6-O-acetyl (2 or 3 or 4)-O-3-methylvaleryl-(3,4 or 2,4 or 2,3)-diO-isovaleryl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside

and 6-O-acetyl (2,3 or 2,4 or 3,4)-di-O-3-methylvaleryl-( 4 or 3 or 2)-O-isobutyryl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside (one of the 3 isomers). (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A cysteine-terminated C(RGD)(4) peptide film was fabricated on a gold electrode for improving the attachment of cells. The electrochemical signals of cyclic voltammogram from cells on

Screening Library cell line a C(RGD)(4) deposited electrode was enhanced from 0.27 to 0.49 mu A compared to a bare electrode. The developed cell-based sensor determined the effect of bisphenol-A (BPA) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DTT) on the viability of HEK-293 cells by detecting decrease of reduction peaks (1.12-0.15 mu A for BPA and 0.81-0.29 mu A for DDT) after the treatment of environmental chemicals. This developed system can be a powerful tool for the monitoring of environmental toxicants.”
“PURPOSE. To characterize contrast sensitivity for sinusoidal stimuli across the central visual

field and help bridge the gap between perimetry and visual psychophysics by developing a contrast-sensitivity template for spatial scale (experiment 1) and testing it on a new dataset (experiment 2).\n\nMETHODS. In experiment 1, 40 subjects free Selleck ML323 of eye disease, ages 43 to 84 years, had one eye tested. Twenty-three locations along the horizontal and vertical meridians were tested with sinusoidal stimuli having peak spatial frequencies of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cpd and a spatial bandwidth of 1.0 octave. Contrast sensitivity functions were fit with a low-pass template slid horizontally on a log-log plot by a spatial scale factor. In experiment 2, 29 of the original subjects had one eye tested. Twenty-six locations in grid form were tested with sinusoidal stimuli having peak spatial frequencies of 0.375, 0.53, 0.75, and 1.5 cpd. Spatial scale values were predicted using the 0.375 cpd data and template and compared to empirical values determined from the remaining data.\n\nRESULTS. In experiment 1, the change in spatial scale alone fit the mean sensitivities well (residual sum of squares = 0.01 log unit).

It was determined that the factor structure of the scale in this

It was determined that the factor structure of the scale in this group

was close to, but weaker than, the factor structure in the adult scale. The criterion validity of the AL3818 concentration scale in regard to the other scales used together showed correlation coefficients between 0.52 and 0.74. Conclusion: It was seen that the results of the analysis of the CES-Depression Scale in this age group were similar to those derived from adult samples. Although certain problems appeared in some of the items due to the characteristics of this age group, the scale as a whole did not display a major problem that would prevent its use in children and adolescents. In other words, our findings have GW786034 research buy shown that the scale can be used in this age group.”
“This review presents the recent progress in the chemistry of dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD). The interest

in and applications of this powerful reagent with more than 135 years of history have greatly increased in the last 10 years, further proving its versatility. Undoubtedly, DMAD can be a multi-tool in the quest of molecular complexity and diversity. The extreme structural diversity of the products described in this review illustrates the powerful potential of DMAD as a building block in organic synthesis.”
“Identifying the contact regions between a protein and its binding partners is essential for creating therapies that block the interaction. Unfortunately,

such contact regions are extremely difficult to characterize because they are hidden inside the binding interface. Here we selleck products introduce protein painting as a new tool that employs small molecules as molecular paints to tightly coat the surface of protein-protein complexes. The molecular paints, which block trypsin cleavage sites, are excluded from the binding interface. Following mass spectrometry, only peptides hidden in the interface emerge as positive hits, revealing the functional contact regions that are drug targets. We use protein painting to discover contact regions between the three-way interaction of IL1 beta ligand, the receptor IL1RI and the accessory protein IL1RAcP. We then use this information to create peptides and monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction and abolish IL1 beta cell signalling. The technology is broadly applicable to discover protein interaction drug targets.”
“In this work libraries of morpholines and oxazepanes have been prepared via the reductive amination reaction between dialdehydes, derived from carbohydrates, and a range of amines. In this way, functionalised morpholines and oxazepanes have been prepared that include N-alkylated derivatives, disaccharide analogues, and ester containing derivatives.

Transplantation was associated with a high incidence of complicat

Transplantation was associated with a high incidence of complications including early relapse, failure of engraftment, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Given the small size of modern families and the clinical heterogeneity of this syndrome, the diagnosis of FPD/AML could be easily overlooked and may be

more prevalent than previously recognized. Therefore, it would appear prudent to screen young patients with MDS/AML for RUNX1 mutation, before consideration of sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (Blood. 2008; 112: 4639-4645)”
“Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization. This tumor is known to share morphological and architectural similarities with paraganglioma learn more and medullary thyroid carcinoma, as well as the nuclear features and RET/PTC1 translocations of papillary thyroid carcinoma. These tumors are not associated with RAS or BRAF mutations. Whether the presence of RET alterations in HTT are sufficient molecular proof

of its relationship with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still to be defined. Of great interest is the characteristic strong peripheral cytoplasmic and membranous staining of the tumor cells with MIB1 immunostain, not seen in any other thyroid neoplasm. Although SYN-117 nmr cases of malignant HTT have been recorded, HTT should be considered a benign neoplasm or, at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential.”
“Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA) are the two most common inherited optic neuropathies and they result in significant visual morbidity among young adults. Both disorders are the result of mitochondrial dysfunction: LHON from primary mitochondrial

see more DNA (mtDNA) mutations affecting the respiratory chain complexes; and the majority of DOA families have mutations in the OPA1 gene, which codes for an inner mitochondrial membrane protein critical for mtDNA maintenance and oxidative phosphorylation. Additional genetic and environmental factors modulate the penetrance of LHON, and the same is likely to be the case for DOA which has a markedly variable clinical phenotype. The selective vulnerability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a key pathological feature and understanding the fundamental mechanisms that underlie RGC loss in these disorders is a prerequisite for the development of effective therapeutic strategies which are currently limited.”
“Fetal macrosomia represents a continuing challenge in obstetrics, as it has risk of shoulder dystocia leading to transient or permanent fetal, maternal injury and medicolegal liability. The overall incidence of macrosomia has been rising.

Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was accelerometry-deri

Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was accelerometry-derived proportion of children meeting the 30-minute/day moderate to vigorous physical activity policy. Results: Children attending intervention afterschool programs had an OR of 2.37 (95% CI = 1.58, 3.54) to achieve the physical activity policy at post-assessment compared to control afterschool programs. Sex-specificmodels indicated that the percentage of intervention girls and boys achieving the physical activity policy increased from 16.7% to 21.4% (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.43, 5.68) and 34.2% to 41.6% (OR = 2.26, 95%

CI = 1.35, 3.80), respectively. At post-assessment, six intervention afterschool MX69 mw programs increased the proportion of boys achieving the physical activity policy to Pevonedistat bigger

than = 45% compared to one control afterschool program, whereas three intervention afterschool programs increased the proportion of girls achieving physical activity policy to bigger than = 30% compared to no control afterschool programs. Conclusions: The Strategies To Enhance Practice intervention can make meaningful changes in the proportion of children meeting the moderate to vigorous physical activity policy within one school year. Additional efforts are required to enhance the impact of the intervention. (C) 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine”
“Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) is becoming standard diagnostic care for potentially curable neoplasms such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In multiple myeloma (MM), the majority of patients will inevitably relapse despite achievement of progressively higher complete remission (CR) rates. Novel treatment protocols with inclusion of antibodies and small molecules might well be able to further increase remission rates and potentially also cure rates. Therefore, MRD diagnostics

becomes essential to assess treatment effectiveness. This review summarizes reports from the past 2 decades, which demonstrate see more that persistent MRD by multiparameter flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction, next-generation sequencing, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography, predicts significantly inferior survival among CR patients. We describe the specific features of currently available techniques for MRD monitoring and outline the arguments favoring new criteria for response assessment that incorporate MRD levels. Extensive data indicate that MRD information can potentially be used as biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of different treatment strategies, help on treatment decisions, and act as surrogate for overall survival.

Modified castor oil (MCO)

was prepared by transesterifica

Modified castor oil (MCO)

was prepared by transesterification selleck inhibitor of glycerol and CO at the molar ratio of 2.0. The waterborne polyurethane-dispersed polyol (PUDp), one component of the 2K-WPU, was synthesized from MCO, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) by the acetone process to provide a prepolymer with a carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. Then the prepolymer was neutralized by triethylamine (TEA) and dispersed into water. After vacuum distillation to remove acetone, the PUDp was obtained and then mixed with four different hardeners: IPDI, hexamethylene diisocyanate(HI), polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified PIPDI (polymeric IPDI) and PEG-modified see more PHDI (polymeric HDI). The NCO/OH molar ratio of 1.5 was used and a 2K-WPU coating was obtained. The results showed that the film of the 2K-WPU coatings obtained from IPDI hardener had excellent gloss and hardness. On the contrary, the film containing PEG-modified PIPDI hardener (PEG-PIPDI) had lower hardness and gloss but higher tensile strength. The film containing PEG-modified PHDI hardener (PEG-PHDI) showed the best elongation at break, abrasion resistance and impact resistance,

though it had the worst hardness. The film with HDI hardener had the best hardness and highest tensile strength and superior water resistance among all the films with different hardeners, and it was suitable for wood coatings. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Despite extensive research on the effects of habitat fragmentation, the ecological mechanisms underlying colonization and extinction processes are poorly known, but knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to understanding the distribution and persistence of populations in fragmented habitats. We examined these mechanisms through multiseason occupancy models that elucidated patch-occupancy

dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) in northwestern Spain. The number of occupied Lazertinib solubility dmso patches was relatively stable from 2000 to 2010 (1524% of 101 patches occupied every year) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Larger and higher quality patches (i.e., higher density of oaks >37 cm dbh [diameter at breast height]) were more likely to be occupied. Habitat quality (i.e., density of large oaks) explained more variation in patch colonization and extinction than did patch size and connectivity, which were both weakly associated with probabilities of turnover. Patches of higher quality were more likely to be colonized than patches of lower quality. Populations in high-quality patches were less likely to become extinct. In addition, extinction in a patch was strongly associated with local population size but not with patch size, which means the latter may not be a good surrogate of population size in assessments of extinction probability.

Of the 10 adults (aged

28-55 years), 1 had 100% facial re

Of the 10 adults (aged

28-55 years), 1 had 100% facial repigmentation in 3 months, 1 had 76% to 99% facial repigmentation in 5 to 9 months, and 2 had 26% to 50% repigmentation in 3 months. Twelve patients developed some facial repigmentation. selleck No patients experienced atrophy, telangiectases, or lesion enlargement during treatment. Combination calcipotriene 0.005%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% ointment shows promise as a once-daily vitiligo therapy. Adult and pediatric facial vitiligo patients may see repigmentation as early as 2 months after initiation of therapy. Children may experience a better response, but larger studies are needed. Cutis. 2011;88:256-259.”
“Introduction: Homozygosity for interleukin-6 (IL-6) 174G_C promoter polymorphism has recently been associated with indices of metabolic syndrome; however, this problem has not been investigated in non-obese subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the relation between abdominal fat distribution and some inflammatory risk factors of atheromatosis and IL-6 174G_C gene polymorphism in non-obese healthy subjects.\n\nMaterial and methods: Relationships were investigated between anthropometric variables, i.e. weight, height, BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat distribution (DXA), serum CRP and IL-6, insulin

sensitivity/resistance indices, and IL-6 QNZ purchase 174G_C gene polymorphism, in healthy non-obese Polish subjects: 232 women (age 31.4 +/- 5.5 years) and 199 men (age 30.3 +/- 6.0 years).\n\nResults: The genetic study revealed that the CC genotype was observed in 15.56% of subjects, the CG genotype in 52.74%, and the GG genotype in 31.7%. IL-6 and CRP

concentration did not differ among the genotypes. There were also no differences regarding BMI and WHR. The only differences among genotypes, observed only in men, were those concerning total fat (CC had higher fat content than CG and GG); the difference being statistically significant between CC and GG (p < 0.05), and gynoidal fat deposit (CC had higher gynoidal fat deposit than CG and GG); the difference being statistically significant between Ferroptosis inhibitor cancer CC and GG (p < 0.025) and between CC and CG (p < 0.05). Biochemical parameters and insulin sensitivity did not differ among the genotypes.\n\nConclusions: These data show that IL-6 174G_C polymorphism is not associated with features describing metabolic syndrome in non-obese healthy subjects. (Pol J Endocrinol 2009; 60 (3): 172-179)”
“Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of atypical antipsychotic use in privately insured children and the diagnoses associated with treatment. Study design. Claims were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of children aged 2 through 18 years in the Midwest, covered by private insurance between 2002 and 2005 (n = 172 766). The 1-year prevalence of children receiving atypical antipsychotics was determined along with associated diagnoses. Results.

Excavations in the vicinity of dung pads revealed significant het

Excavations in the vicinity of dung pads revealed significant heterogeneity among species and guilds in the lateral distance between tunnels and dung, and in tunnel depth. Patterns of succession and diel activity demonstrated strong temporal dissociations among guilds. In one species, Onthophagus multicornis, we found a bimodal distribution of male horn sizes and a tunneling pattern consistent with alternative reproductive tactics.”
“Using a diagrammatic superoperator formalism we calculate optical signals at molecular junctions where a single molecule

is coupled to two metal leads which are held at different chemical potentials. The molecule starts in a nonequilibrium steady state whereby it continuously exchanges electrons with

the leads with a constant electron flux. Expressions for frequency domain optical signals measured in response to continuous laser fields are derived by expanding the molecular correlation buy CYT387 functions JQEZ5 in terms of its many-body states. The nonunitary evolution of molecular states is described by the quantum master equation. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Ethnopharmacological relevance: Velvet antlers (VA) have been claimed for centuries to have numerous medical benefits including strengthen bones. To investigate and compare the anti-osteoporotic activities from different sections of VA.\n\nMaterials and methods: Fresh VA prepared from farmed sika deers (Cervus nippon) was divided into upper (VAU), middle (VAM), and basal (VAB) sections. click here The chemical constituents and anti-osteoporotic effect of different sections from VA were evaluated using ovariectomized rats.\n\nResults: Levels of water-soluble extracts, diluted alcoholic extract, amino acids, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1and testosterone plus estradiol significantly differed among the different sections. Levels of these constituents were significantly higher in the upper section than in the basal section. Moreover, levels of testosterone and IGF-1 of the VAM were also significantly higher than those of the VAB. Calcium level increased downward from the tip with statistical significance.

The strength of vertebrae increased in all VA-treated groups compared to the control, but only treatment with VAU and VAM increased the strength of the femur and the microarchitecure of the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase levels of VAU- and VAM-treated groups significantly decreased, but osteocalcin did not significantly change. Moreover, VAU and VAM dose-dependently increased proliferation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells.\n\nConclusion: Our study provides strong evidence for the regional differences in the effectiveness of velvet antler in treating osteoporosis. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the bioactive chemical constituents associated with the anti-osteoporotic effects of velvet antler. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Here, our main objective was to determine if the findings in mous

Here, our main objective was to determine if the findings in mouse models of obesity translated to women. Breast tissue was obtained from 30 women who underwent breast surgery. CLS of the breast

(CLS-B) was found in nearly 50% (14 of 30) of patient samples. The severity of breast inflammation, defined as the CLS-B index, correlated with both body mass index (P < 0.001) and adipocyte size (P = 0.01). Increased NF-kappa B binding activity and elevated aromatase expression and activity were found in the inflamed breast tissue of overweight and obese women. Collectively, our results suggest that the obesity -> inflammation -> aromatase axis is present in the breast tissue of most overweight and obese women. The presence of CLS-B may be a biomarker of increased phosphatase inhibitor library breast cancer risk or poor prognosis. Cancer Prev Res; 4(7); 1021-9. (C)2011 AACR.”
“The progression of certain primary esophageal motor disorders to achalasia has been documented; however, the true incidence of this decay is still elusive. This study aims to evaluate: (i) the incidence of the progression of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia, and (ii) predictive factors to this progression. Thirty-five patients (mean age 53 years, 80% females) with a manometric picture of diffuse esophageal spasm were followed for at least 1 year.

Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease confirmed by pH monitoring or systemic diseases that may affect esophageal motility were excluded. Esophageal manometry was repeated BIX 01294 supplier in all patients. Five (14%) of the patients progressed to achalasia at a mean follow-up of 2.1 (range 1-4) years. Demographic characteristics were not predictive of transition to achalasia, while dysphagia (P= 0.005) as the main symptom and the wave amplitude of simultaneous waves less than 50mmHg (P= 0.003) were statistically significant.

In conclusion, the transition of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia is not frequent at a 2-year follow-up. Dysphagia and simultaneous waves with low amplitude are predictive factors for this degeneration.”
“Context: SBE-β-CD molecular weight Uterine leiomyomas are highly prevalent benign tumors of premenopausal women and the most common indication for hysterectomy. However, the exact etiology of this tumor is not fully understood. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of activin-A and myostatin and their signaling pathways in human myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Design: This was a laboratory study. Setting: Myometrial and leiomyoma cells (primary and cell lines) were cultured in vitro. Patients: The study included premenopausal women who were admitted to the hospital for myomectomy or hysterectomy.

It has also been shown that compounds derived from the peptidomim

It has also been shown that compounds derived from the peptidomimetic scaffold that the pilicides are based on can prevent both A beta aggregation and curli formation. To facilitate optimizations

towards the different targets, a new synthetic platform has been developed that S63845 solubility dmso enables fast and simple introduction of various substituents in position C-7 on the peptidomimetic scaffold. Importantly, this strategy also enables introduction of previously unattainable heteroatoms in this position. Pivotal to the synthetic strategy is the synthesis of a C-7 bromomethyl substituted derivative of the ring-fused dihydrothiazolo 2-pyridone pilicide scaffold. From this versatile and reactive intermediate various heteroatom-linked substituents could be introduced on the scaffold including amines, ethers, amides and sulfonamides.

In addition, carbon-carbon bonds could be introduced to the sp(3)-hybridized bromomethyl substituted scaffold by Suzuki-Miyaura cross couplings. Evaluation of the 24 C-7 substituted compounds in whole-bacterial assays provided important structure-activity data and resulted in the identification of a number of new pilicides with activity as good or better than those developed previously. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between the secular trend of the suicide rate and this website the socio-economic, media, and climatic factors in Taiwan during 1976-2009.\n\nMethods: The yearly suicide death rate, socio-economic (spouseless population, aged population, labor participation rate, unemployment rate, and gross national production), media (newspapers, television sets, and personal computer) densities, and climatic (temperature, rainfall, and sunshine) factors were gathered. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between variables were calculated, and stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted.\n\nResults: Percentage

of the spouseless and elderly population, labor participation rate, check details unemployment rate, and densities of newspapers and personal computer were significantly associated with suicide rate. Multiple regression chose spouseless population, labor participation rate, and unemployment rate to explain 96.1% of the variance of the suicide rate (F((3,22))=178.996, p=0.000).\n\nConclusions: Socioe-conomic factors are important for the secular trend of suicide, while medium densities also play some roles.(C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Knowledge about the dynamical properties of a protein is of essential importance for understanding the structure-dynamics function relationship at the atomic level.

The wastewater was fed to a lab-scale anaerobic upflow sludge bla

The wastewater was fed to a lab-scale anaerobic upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) operating at mesophilic conditions. The UASB reactor (11.5 L) was operated for 825 days at different hydraulic retention times ranging from 0.85 to 1.62 days and at organic loading rates ranging from 3.40 to 12.25 kg COD/m(3). day. Anaerobic treatability studies indicated that 300 L CH(4) can be produced per Saracatinib kg COD removed. At the 445th day of the

study an extreme irreversible inhibition caused by N,N-dimethylaniline was experienced. This paper demonstrated that opium alkaloid industry wastewater can be efficiently treated by UASB type reactors with more than 80% COD removal efficiency at high organic loading rates.”
“Background: To evaluate the association of apolipoprotein B (apoB), apolipoprotein A (apoA), and apoB/apoA ratio with the body fat indicators in patients with stable angina pectoris (SA). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty two participants aged 40-60 years old, with a mean age of 52.1 +/- 7.2 years and SA, were recruited for the present study. Body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and waist to height ratio JQ-EZ-05 nmr (WHtR) was calculated. After 12 hours of fasting, a blood sample was obtained and serum levels of apoB and apoA were measured and the apoB/apoA ratio was calculated. These patients underwent an abdominal computerized tomography scan (CTS) to

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Linear regressions were computed to assess the relation of apoB, apoA, and their ratio with various measurements of adiposity (VAT, SAT, WC, and WHtR), with adjustment for age, sex, and BMI bigger than 25, WC bigger than 80 in women and WC bigger than 90 in men and WHtR bigger than 0.59. Results: From totally 123 patients with SA with a mean age of 52.1 +/- 7.2 years, 44.7% male and 55.3% women were entered. Significant positive associations were found between visceral fat area and the apoB/apoA ratio (P = 0.02, beta = 0.2), and significant negative correlations were observed between visceral fat area and apoA concentrations (P = 0.04, beta = -0.2). Conclusion: As abdominal fat accumulation is associated with other risk factors such as apolipoproteins in ischemic patients, then we most focus on control of these factors.”
“A high-efficiency CMOS power amplifier (PA) based on envelope tracking (ET) has been reported for a wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) and long term evolution (LTE) application. By adopting a high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier with current direction sensing, a 5% improvement in total power-added efficiency (PAE) and a 11 dB decrease in adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) are achieved with a W-CDMA signal. Moreover, the proposed PA achieves a PAE of 25.4% for a 10 MHz LTE signal at an output power (P-out) of 25.6 dBm and a gain of 24 dB.