The effect of GA on

The effect of GA on check details intestinal glucose transport may be useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes,

the effect of GA on angiogenin and beta-catenin expression could be exploited for the prophylaxis against colon carcinoma, the effects of GA on angiogenin expression and dendritic cells may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory disease and malaria. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“To examine the role of meaning in morphological decomposition (re-+play), researchers have employed the priming paradigm. Perceptually masked primes lead to facilitation both when decomposition is semantically appropriate (hunter-HUNT) and when it is not (corner-CORN), whereas with fully visible primes facilitation is observed only in the former case. We investigated the N400 brain potential time-locked to words preceded by fully visible primes. At similar to 300-380 ms, N400 was equally attenuated in the semantically “”transparent”" condition (hunter-HUNT) and semantically “”opaque”" condition (corner-CORN). Cell Cycle inhibitor In the transparent condition, N400 remained attenuated after 380 ms, whereas in the opaque condition it returned to the level of a nonmorphological form condition (brothel-BROTH). This pattern

of N400 priming is consistent with an orthography-based, morphological decomposition mechanism, “”licensed”" at a later stage by semantic information.”
“Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated

lipocalin (NGAL), a widely accepted diagnostic marker of acute renal injury (AKI) may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Purpose: To assess the prognostic significance of serum and urinary NGAL and serum cystatin C in patients with stable angina undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on a 3-year Sclareol follow-up. Methods: We included patients with stable angina undergoing PCI. Serum NGAL and cystatin C were evaluated before and 4h, 8h after PCI. Urinary NGAL was evaluated before and 12h and 24h after the procedure. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality on a 3-year follow-up. Results: Among 132 patients there were 63% of males (mean age 64,5 +/- 9,8 years). Mean eGFR was 86.2 +/- 28.5 ml/min. During follow-up 8% of the patients died. All-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with increased urinary NGAL concentration 12h after PCI (p=0.04). Urinary NGAL 12h after PCI correlated with eGFR (p<0.05), with serum NGAL evaluated before and 4h and 8h after PCI (p<0.05) and with increased serum cystatin C evaluated 4 hours after PCI (p<0.05). Conclusions: Increased urinary NGAL concentration is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with stable angina who undergo PCI and may be used for the risk stratification in this population. Copyright (C) 2013 S.

“Acetone, toluene and styrene (ATS) are representative air

“Acetone, toluene and styrene (ATS) are representative air pollutants emanating during the production process in

fibreglass and composite manufacturing industries. In this study, the performance of a steady-state biofilter inoculated with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus was tested at different empty bed residence times (EBRTs), and at different inlet concentrations of ATS, corresponding to total pollutant loading rates ranging from 30 to 490 g m(-3) hour(-1). Styrene was somewhat Acalabrutinib solubility dmso better removed (47-100%) in the biofilter than acetone (34-100%) and toluene (42-100%), with maximum elimination capacities (ECmax) of 108, 72 and 144 g m(-3) hour(-1), for ATS, respectively. Besides, it was observed

that, although increasing Tanespimycin the concentration of ATS decreased their removal, the presence of toluene also decreased the ECmax of both acetone and toluene in the ternary mixture. During transient operations, the biofilter was subjected to intermittent shutdown and re-start operations where the gas-phase pollutant flow was stopped for either 5 or 16 d. It was observed that, for longer shutdown periods (16 d), the biofilter required nearly 8-10 d to reach similar removal patterns to those observed before the shutdown phase. Batch biodegradation tests were conducted, using Sporothrix-like microorganisms present in the leachate of the biofilter, with a mixture of ATS as the sole Roscovitine clinical trial carbon source. Complete removal of ATS was observed within the test period of 168 hours. Styrene was degraded faster, with a specific substrate utilization rate of 0.9 mg styrene mg

biomass(-1) hour(-1), followed by toluene (0.6) and acetone (0.44). The effectiveness of the biofilter to reach high total EC (321.3 g m(-3) hour(-1)), and withstand transient operations shows the robustness of this fungal-bioreactor and its suitability to handle emissions from a fibreglass and composite manufacturing industry.”
“Purpose: Isolated reported cases of familial torsion yield modest information on incidence, genetics or clinical features. We present what is to our knowledge the largest series of familial torsion, including the first 3 generation case and a review of the literature.

Materials and Methods: Since 2006, we have questioned the presence of a positive family history in all patients with torsion at the initial consultation. We compiled data on familial relationship, laterality, age and outcomes of the proband and affected relatives. We collected previously published cases to better understand clinical features and genetics.

Results: Eight of 70 boys (11.4%) with torsion had affected family members. Another 2 families were included from a historical perspective. One relative was affected in 7 families, 2 were affected in 2 and 3 were affected in 1. First degree relatives were most commonly affected.

Thus, observing a tool activates the putative action-stream, incl

Thus, observing a tool activates the putative action-stream, including the left posterior parietal cortex. HDAC inhibitor Observing a hand functionally grasping a tool involves the inferior frontal cortex. However, tool-use movements are performed in a contextual and grasp specific manner, rather than relative isolation. Our prior behavioral data has demonstrated that the context of tool-use (by pairing the tool with

different objects) and varying hand grasp postures of the tool can interact to modulate subjects’ reaction times while evaluating tool-object content. Specifically, perceptual judgment was delayed in the evaluation of functional tool-object pairings (Correct context) when the tool was non-functionally (Manipulative) grasped. Here, we hypothesized that this behavioral interference seen with the Manipulative posture would be due to increased and extended left parietofrontal activity possibly underlying motor simulations when resolving action conflict due to this particular grasp

at time scales relevant to the behavioral data. Further, we hypothesized that this neural effect will be restricted to the Correct tool-object context wherein ATR inhibitor action affordances are at a maximum.

64-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 16 right-handed subjects while viewing images depicting three classes of tool-object contexts: functionally Correct (e.g. coffee pot-coffee mug), functionally Incorrect (e.g. coffee pot-marker) and Spatial (coffee pot-milk). The Spatial context pairs a tool and object that would not functionally match, but may commonly appear in the same scene. These three contexts were modified

by hand interaction: No Hand, Static Hand near the tool, Functional Hand posture and Manipulative Hand posture. The Manipulative posture is convenient for relocating a tool but does not afford a functional engagement of the tool on the target object. Subjects were instructed to visually assess whether the pictures displayed correct tool-object associations. EEG Selleckchem Selonsertib data was analyzed in time-voltage and time-frequency domains. Overall, Static Hand, Functional and Manipulative postures cause early activation (100-400 ms post image onset) of parietofrontal areas, to varying intensity in each context, when compared to the No Hand control condition. However, when context is Correct, only the Manipulative Posture significantly induces extended neural responses, predominantly over right parietal and right frontal areas [400-600 ms post image onset]. Significant power increase was observed in the theta band [4-8 Hz] over the right frontal area, [0-500 ms]. In addition, when context is Spatial, Manipulative posture alone significantly induces extended neural responses, over bilateral parietofrontal and left motor areas [400-600 ms]. Significant power decrease occurred primarily in beta bands [12-16, 20-25 Hz] over the aforementioned brain areas [400-600 ms].

2-1 mm from the microcatheter tip The lengths

of the det

2-1 mm from the microcatheter tip. The lengths

of the detachment zone, which is known to be a stiff segment, of the currently available coils were approximately 0.5-0.8 mm. The distance between the distal end of the distal markers of the microcatheters and the detachment zone of the coil ranged from approximately 1.2 to 2.8 mm.

Conclusion To prevent rupture of very small aneurysms during coiling, the distal marker of the selected microcatheter should be carefully located near the aneurysm neck, Belnacasan molecular weight considering all the structural characteristic of the currently available coils and microcatheters. Refinement of currently available devices may be essential to achieve safer coiling of very small aneurysms.”
“Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry into cells is a multistep process that engages the host cell machinery. The proteasome is a large, ATP-dependent, multisubunit protease that plays a critical role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. A battery of assays were used to demonstrate that proteasome inhibitors blocked an early step in HSV entry that occurred after capsid penetration into the cytosol but prior to capsid arrival at the nuclear

periphery. Proteasome-dependent viral entry was not reliant on host or viral protein synthesis. MG132, a peptide aldehyde that competitively inhibits the degradative activity of the proteasome, had a reversible inhibitory effect A-769662 research buy on HSV entry. HSV can use endocytic or nonendocytic click here pathways to enter cells. These distinct entry routes were both dependent on proteasome-mediated proteolysis. In addition, HSV successfully entered cells in the absence of a functional host ubiquitin-activating enzyme, suggesting that viral entry is ubiquitin independent. We propose that proteasomal degradation of virion and/or host proteins is required for efficient

delivery of incoming HSV capsids to the nucleus.”
“We report an association of new technologies (the Onyx liquid embolic system and the Sonic microcatheter) for transarterial embolization through the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery of a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the anterior fossa. The place of endovascular treatment in anterior fossa DAVFs is reviewed, and its clinical implications discussed in light of the case of a patient whose management was modified by this association of new technologies.”
“Progressive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is often associated with high plasma virus load (pVL) and impaired CD8(+) T-cell function; in contrast, CD8(+) T cells remain polyfunctional in long-term nonprogressors. However, it is still unclear whether CD8(+) T-cell dysfunction is the cause or the consequence of high pVLs.

2009, PNAS 106 5406-5411], the model predicts that exposing the c

2009, PNAS 106 5406-5411], the model predicts that exposing the cell to extracellular 1.5% CO2/10 mM HCO3- (pH 7.50) causes pH(i) to fall and pH(S) to rise rapidly to a peak and then decay. Moreover, the model provides insights into the competition between diffusion and reaction processes when we

change the width of the EUF, membrane permeability to CO2, native extra- and intracellular carbonic anhydrase-like activities, the non-CO2/HCO3- (intrinsic) intracellular buffering power, or mobility of intrinsic intracellular buffers. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that causes a progressive loss in Selleckchem RAD001 learning and memory capabilities and eventually results in dementia. The non-renewable nature of neurons in the central nervous system leads to the basic pathological changes that are related to the various behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. Oligodendrocyte- and myelin-related neurite outgrowth inhibitors (NOIs) tend to hinder the regeneration of neurons. We designed a recombinant DNA vaccine composed of multiple specific inhibitory domains of NOIs: Vaccination induced effective antibodies against the specific domains in the sera of mice treated with a DNA primed-vaccinia

virus boost regimen. The vaccine attenuated neuronal degeneration in the mouse brain and protected the model mice from behavioral deficits. Vaccination also decreased the formation of soluble A beta oligomer and amyloid plaques Napabucasin molecular weight in the co-transgenic mice brain. What’s more, astrocytosis in brains of APP/PS1 co-transgenic mice was also relieved. The results suggested that immunotherapy with multiple specific domains of myelin- and oligodendrocyte-related NOIs may be a promising approach for Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative central nervous system diseases. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”

Neuropsychological studies comparing cognitive performance in patients suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) revealed deficits in the domains of verbal fluency and viso-motor speed/set shifting in both groups. Spatial working memory deficits, however, have been identified as specific markers of OCD. As yet, it has not been substantiated whether deficits in visual organization and complex visual memory are also specific to OCD and are not AZD3965 in vitro shared by MDD.

Method: Test performance in seven cognitive domains was assessed in 40 OCD patients, 20 MDD patients, and 40 healthy controls. Patient groups were matched according to severity of depressive symptoms.

Results: Deficits shared by both patient groups, as compared to controls, were found in delayed spatial recall and verbal fluency while verbal memory was normal in both patient groups. Only patients with OCD, but not MDD patients were impaired in the domains visual memory, viso-motor speed/set shifting, visual organization, and problem solving.

First, POLG I missense mutations have been found in patients with

First, POLG I missense mutations have been found in patients with familial parkinsonism and mitochondrial myopathy. Second, increased frequency of rare alleles of the POLG1 CAG-repeat (poly-Q) has been found in Finnish idiopathic apparently sporadic PD patients, but conflicting reports exist. The POLG1 poly-Q exhibits one major allele with 10 repeats (10Q, frequency >= 80%) and several less common alleles such as 11Q (frequency 6-9%), 6Q-9Q and 12Q-14Q (frequencies <4%). It is not known, whether the poly-Q variation modulates POLG1 function.

Here we sequenced the poly-Q in 641 North American Caucasian PD patients and 292 controls. Caucasian literature controls were also used. Normal allele was defined either as 10/11Q

or as 10Q according to the previous literature. The frequency of the non-10/11Q alleles in cases was not significantly different from the controls. Variant alleles defined as non-10Q were significantly Rabusertib manufacturer increased in the PD patients compared to the North American controls (17.6% vs. 12.3%, p=0.004) as well as compared to the larger set of 897 controls (17.6% vs. 13.2%, p=0.0007). These results suggest that POLG1 poly-Q alleles other than the conserved 10Q allele may increase susceptibility to PD. This finding may be attributable to a beneficial function of the 10Q repeat protein or linkage disequilibrium between the 10Q allele and another variation click here within or close to POLG1. Other large case-control studies and analyses on functional differences of POLG1 poly-Q variants are warranted. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

The main aims of this study were to clone and express flagellin flaA gene from Vibrio alginolyticus strain HY9901, also to prepare mouse anti-FlaA polyclonal PF299804 supplier antibody for future pathogen or vaccine study.

Methods and Results:

The full-length flaA gene was amplified by PCR with designed primers. The open reading frame of flaA gene contains 1131 bp, and its putative protein consists of 376 amino acid residues. Alignment analysis indicated that

the FlaA protein was highly conserved. SDS-PAGE indicated that the FlaA protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Then, the recombinant FlaA protein was purified by affinity chromatography, and the mouse anti-FlaA serum was produced. The expression of flaA gene was verified by various immunological methods, including western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM).


Flagellin flaA gene was cloned and identified from V. alginolyticus HY9901, the recombinant FlaA protein was expressed and purified, and high-titre FlaA protein-specific antibody was produced. Western blot analysis revealed that the prepared antiserum not only specifically react to FlaA fusion protein, but also to natural FlaA protein of V. alginolyticus.

It is becoming clear that CB(1)-receptor-mediated signaling is im

It is becoming clear that CB(1)-receptor-mediated signaling is important to normal processes of vocal development.

Materials and methods To better understand the mechanisms involved in cannabinoid modulation of vocal behavior, we have investigated the dose-response relationship between systemic cannabinoid exposure and changes

in neuronal activity (as indicated by expression of the transcription factor, c-Fos) within telencephalic brain regions, with established involvement in song learning and/or control.

Results In adults, we have found that low doses (0.1 mg/kg) of the cannabinoid agonist WIN-55212-2 decrease neuronal activity (as indicated AICAR price by densities of c-fos-expressing nuclei) within vocal motor regions of caudal telencephalon (HVC and RA) while higher doses (3 mg/kg) stimulate activity. Both effects were reversed by pretreatment with the CB(1)-selective

antagonist rimonabant. Interestingly, no effects of cannabinoid treatment were observed within the rostral song regions lMAN and Area X, despite distinct and dense CB(1) receptor expression within these areas.

Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrate that, depending on dosage, CB(1) agonism can both inhibit Ferrostatin-1 manufacturer and stimulate neuronal activity within brain regions controlling adult vocal motor output, implicating involvement of multiple CB(1)-sensitive neuronal circuits.”
“Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is poised to establish a new clinical paradigm; however, recent trials have produced mixed results. Although MSC were originally considered to treat connective tissue defects, preclinical studies revealed potent immunomodulatory properties that prompted the use of MSC to treat numerous inflammatory conditions. Unfortunately, although clinical trials have met safety endpoints, efficacy has

riot been demonstrated. We believe the challenge to demonstrate efficacy can be attributed in part to an incomplete understanding of the fate of MSC following infusion. Here, we highlight the clinical status of MSC therapy and discuss the importance of cell-tracking techniques, which have advanced our understanding of the fate and function of systemically infused MSC and might improve clinical application.”
“Objectives: Our objective was to determine the long-term survival of patients with resected synchronous multiple pulmonary malignant tumors.

Methods: This is a multi-institutional retrospective study of patients who underwent surgical resection of synchronous (nonbronchioloalveolar) non-small cell lung cancer.

Results: Between March 1996 and December 2009, 67 patients (30 men) underwent 121 operations.

The application of ATP gamma S and 2MeSATP mimicked the effects o

The application of ATP gamma S and 2MeSATP mimicked the effects of ATP, but 2MeSADP, 2MeSAMP and alpha beta meATP had no effect. The P2X7 receptor agonist, BzATP, did not induce an inward current, but it increased intracellular calcium concentration in non-neuronal SON cells in slices. Suramin and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid (PPADS) inhibited ATP-induced currents, whereas pH 6.5 and ivermectin, a specific allosteric modulator of the P2X4 receptor, potentiated ATP-induced currents.

The P2Y1-selective antagonist, MRT67307 clinical trial 2′-deoxy-N-6-methyladenosine 3′,5′-bisphosphate tetrasodium salt (MRS 2179), had no effect on ATP-induced responses. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that P2X2 > P2X7 > P2X4 purinergic receptor mRNAs were expressed in the SON tissue, but the levels of P2X1, P2X3, P2X5,

P2X6, P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y12 mRNA were minor. These results show that SON neurons express functional presynaptic and extrasynaptic P2X2 and P2X4 receptors that modulate glutamate and GABA release and control the electrical excitability of SON neurons. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In nature prion diseases are usually transmitted by extracerebral prion infection, but clinical disease results only after invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). Prion protein (PrP), a host-encoded glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein, is necessary for prion infection and disease. Here, we investigated the role of the anchoring of PrP on prion neuroinvasion by studying various inoculation routes in mice expressing

either anchored or anchorless PrP. In control mice with anchored PrP, intracerebral or sciatic nerve inoculation resulted in rapid CNS neuroinvasion and clinical disease (154 to 156 days), and after tongue, ocular, intravenous, or intraperitoneal inoculation, CNS neuroinvasion was only slightly slower (193 to 231 days). In contrast, in anchorless PrP mice, these routes resulted in slow and infrequent CNS neuroinvasion. Only intracerebral inoculation caused brain PrPres, a protease-resistant isoform of PrP, and disease in both types of mice. Thus, anchored PrP SB431542 was an essential component for the rapid neural spread and CNS neuroinvasion of prion infection.”
“Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) promote axon growth during development and regeneration of the nervous system. Among the four types of FGF receptors (FGFRs), FGFR1 is expressed in adult sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and overexpression of FGFR1 promotes FGF-2-induced elongative axon growth in vitro. Ligand-induced activation of FGFR1 is followed by endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which leads to the termination of receptor signaling. We previously reported that the lysosomal inhibitor leupeptin enhances FGF-2-induced elongative axon growth of adult DRG neurons overexpressing FGFR1.

Categorization, verification, and consolidation were completed wi

Categorization, verification, and consolidation were completed within 3 months and on a C$10 000 budget.”
“We report data from experiments on orthographic and phonological coding in two patients with attentional dyslexia following bilateral parietal damage. Two experiments required the patients to carry out lexical decisions and we varied

whether the nonwords were orthographically or phonologically similar to real words. Experiment 1 showed that the patients were sensitive to the orthographic relations between nonwords and words, as they tended to accept as words nonwords whose letters could migrate within the string to form a word. There were no effects of phonological similarity between the nonwords and the words. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the patients were less likely to

Daporinad concentration accept nonwords as words if the word had to be formed by transposing the first two letters in the string. The data suggest that attentional dyslexics are primarily sensitive to orthographic similarity between words and nonwords, and also that the first letters have privileged coding of their locations, despite the patients being poor at coding letter positions. The implications for theories of visual word recognition are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder selleck screening library that classically presents with motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. However, other abnormalities also occur in this condition, notably deficient recognition of facial emotional expressions. Deficits in emotion recognition impact significantly on the lives of HD patients

and their families and thus it is important to clarify the onset and pattern of impairment. This study investigated facial emotion recognition in a large cohort of early HD patients, and premanifest gene-carriers. We used DAPT voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine the neuroanatomical correlates of emotion recognition performance. Forty patients with early HID, 21 premanifest gene carriers and 20 controls were assessed using 24 faces from the Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect, and volumetric brain MRI. The HD group was significantly worse than controls at recognising, surprise, disgust, anger and fear, and worse than the premanifest group at recognising disgust and anger. When patient data were expressed as z-scores, recognition of anger was significantly worse than disgust in the early HID group. In the VBM analysis, these deficits were associated with common regional atrophy: impaired recognition of surprise, disgust, anger and fear were all associated with striatal volume loss. Fear was associated with additional atrophy of the right insula and left and right lateral orbitofrontal cortex.

Even in early HID there is a wide-ranging impairment in recognition of negative emotions denoting ‘threat’.

While PKCE activation can induce acute hyperalgesia in the IB4(+)

While PKCE activation can induce acute hyperalgesia in the IB4(+) population, it fails to induce priming. We suggest that hyperalgesic priming occurs only in IB4(+) nociceptors, and that in the peripheral terminals of nociceptors separate intracellular pools of PKCE

mediate nociceptor sensitization and the induction of hyperalgesic priming. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Severely symptomatic heart failure is increasingly common as the population ages. Both prognosis and quality of life are poor. These patients have limited options. Few are eligible for cardiac transplantation because of age or the common transplant comorbidities of pulmonary hypertension and renal impairment. In New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV patients, ventricular resynchronization therapy provides only marginal benefit that is insufficient to improve LB-100 molecular weight quality of life. 1 Lifetime circulatory support has a firm evidence base in the REMATCH trial. 2 Because of the complication rates in first-generation left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), the compelling argument for an CUDC-907 off-the-shelf solution for advanced heart failure has been slow to progress.

In 2000, we

reported the first implantation of a new miniaturized rotary blood pump with a novel power-delivery system designed for permanent use. 3 At the time, there was skepticism about the ability of a nonpulsatile LVAD to sustain end-organ function on a long-term basis. In fact, the patient became the world’s longest circulatory support survivor. We now describe the autopsy findings

to conclude this experience.”
“The olfactory bulb receives a large number of centrifugal fibers whose functions remain unclear. To gain insight into the function of the bulbar centrifugal system, the morphology of individual centrifugal BV-6 mouse axons from olfactory cortical areas was examined in detail. An anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, was injected into rat olfactory cortical areas, including the pars lateralis of the anterior olfactory nucleus (IAON) and the anterior part of the piriform cortex (aPC). Reconstruction from serial sections revealed that the extrabulbar segments of centrifugal axons from the IAON and those from the aPC had distinct trajectories: the former tended to innervate the pars externa of the AON before entering the olfactory bulb, while the latter had extrabulbar collaterals that extended to a variety of targets. In contrast to the extrabulbar segments, no clear differences were found between the intrabulbar segments of axons from the IAON and from the aPC. The intrabulbar segments of centrifugal axons were mainly found in the granule cell layer but a few axons extended into the external plexiform and glomerular layer. Approximately 40% of centrifugal axons innervated both the medial and lateral aspects of the olfactory bulb.