This is confirmed by the perithecial anatomy find more of the sexually reproducing Heleiosa barbatula.”
“To date, due to the rarity, tumor biology and carcinogenesis of small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), the disease has been explored insufficiently and immunophenotyping and molecular characterization have not been finalized. This knowledge gap consecutively leads to an overt lack of diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations. In the current study, we provide our experience with the treatment of SBA, and demand for cross-national
data pooling to enable unlimited information transfer and higher powered study. A comprehensive database of all patients with SBA was established and consecutively reviewed for clinicopathohistological
data, information concerning preoperative evaluation, surgical and chemotherapeutical treatment, as well as outcome parameters. Patients underwent curative intended surgery (42.4%; n=14), adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX) following resection (36.4%; n=12) or palliative care (21.2%; n=7). Selleckchem Vactosertib The majority of patients were diagnosed at an advanced disease stage (pT3, 36.4%; pT4, 39.4%) and the duodenum was the most common tumor site (57.1%; n=20). Complete surgical resection was achieved in 88.5% of patients, while postoperative complications occurred in 19.4%. Within a mean follow-up period of 31.4 months, 17 patients succumbed to the disease following a median survival time of 11 months. Mean overall survival (OS) was 47.4, 25.3 and 9.8 months for surgically, surgically and chemotherapeutically and palliatively treated Alvocidib supplier patients, respectively. Early surgical resection remains the mainstay in the treatment of localized SBA, since it is associated with a prolongation of OS. The role of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CTX has not yet been defined. Thus, since no consensus exists on the adequate treatment of these malignancies, we demand an international collaboration and cross-national
data pooling to pave the way for the implementation of evidence-based standard care operating procedures.”
“Disorders caused by the malfunction of the serotonergic system in the central nervous system show sex-specific prevalence. Many studies have reported a relationship between sex steroid hormones and the brain serotonergic system; however, the interaction between sex steroid hormones and the number of brain neurons expressing serotonin has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether sex steroid hormones altered the number of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of adult rat brains. Animals were divided into five groups: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+ low estradiol (E2), OVX+ high E2, castrated males, and intact males.
J. Exp. Zool. 321A: 479-489, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Quantifying non-target effects of augmentative releases on populations of conspecifics is key to understanding the long-term impacts
of augmentation biological control. Potential deleterious (and advantageous) allelic variation carried over to augmented populations from GSK2879552 price ‘source’ populations could shape adaptive evolutionary trajectories. Variation at seven microsatellite loci was determined in 117 adults from 11 populations (2 populations from California, 1 from Arizona, 1 from South America, and 7 from regions east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States [hereafter, Eastern]) of the widely distributed predatory lady beetle,
Hippodamia convergens Guerin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Our study was designed to examine possible introgression of genes from adult H. convergens that are mass-collected in California annually and released in eastern North America for augmentative biological control. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.44 and all loci were polymorphic High Content Screening (mean = 20.57 alleles/locus). The number of genetically distinct subpopulations of H. convergens was estimated to be at least two. Our analyses indicate that Californian multilocus genotypes are admixed within Eastern populations of H. convergens. We also determined the sizes of California populations to be larger than all sampled Eastern populations, suggesting recent declines in the latter. Additional study of the population demography of H. convergens and its local ecological adaptations is required to determine if these augmentative releases are causing large-scale non-target effects. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The main goal of this study was to establish how the inflammation caused by infection with two different Salmonella enterica serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, may lead to the predisposition to allergy as measured by total IgE level in the blood. Infection
by S. Typhimurium did not see more affect the systemic IgE concentration while in S. Enteritidis-infected patients there was a significant 3.5-fold increase. This effect was especially profound in patients bigger than 4 years old, with up to the 8-fold increase above the norm. The degree of dysbiosis in these two infections measured with the comparative counts of cultivated bacteria showed an inverse relationship with the IgE concentration. Earlier we reported the elevated level of IL-17 in patients infected by S. Enteritidis. In the current study a significant correlation was found between the concentrations of IL-17 and IgE suggesting a possible role played by this cytokine in triggering the production of IgE in response to S. Enteritidis infection.
Bleomycin causes an increase in oxidative stress which has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active component of the spice turmeric, has attracted interest because of its anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive activities. However, no study has been carried out so far to elucidate its interaction with bleomycin in testicular cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin and bleomycin on apoptosis signalling pathways and compared the effects of bleomycin with H2O2 which directly produces reactive oxygen species. We measured apoptosis markers such as caspase-3, caspase-8,
and caspase-9 Selisistat cost activities and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyt-c levels in NCCIT cells incubated with curcumin (5 mu M), bleomycin (120 mu g/ml), bleomycin + curcumin, H2O2 (35 mu M), and H2O2 + curcumin for 72 h. Curcumin, bleomycin, and H2O2
caused apoptosis indicated as increases in caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities and Bax and cytoplasmic Cyt-c levels and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. Concurrent use of curcumin with bleomycin decreased caspase activities and Bax and Cyt-c levels compared to their separate effects in NCCIT cells. Our findings suggest that concurrent use of curcumin during chemotherapy in testis cancer should be avoided due to the inhibitory effect of curcumin on bleomycin-induced learn more apoptosis.”
“Cassava stillage is a high strength organic wastewater U0126 research buy with high suspended solids (SS) content. The efficiency of cassava stillage treatment using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was significantly enhanced by discharging settled sludge to maintain a lower sludge concentration (about 30 g/L) in the reactor. Three hydraulic retention times (HRTs), namely 10 d, 7.5 d, 5 d, were evaluated at this condition. The study demonstrated that at an HRT of 5 d and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 11.3 kg COD/(m(3) d), the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency
can still be maintained at above 80%. The settleability of digested cassava stillage was improved significantly, and thus only a small amount of settled sludge needed to be discharged to maintain the sludge concentration in the reactor. Furthermore, the performance of ASBR operated at low and high sludge concentration (about 79.5 g/L without sludge discharged) was evaluated at an HRT of 5 d. The TCOD removal efficiency and SS in the effluent were 61% and 21.9 g/L respectively at high sludge concentration, while the values were 85.1% and 2.4 g/L at low sludge concentration. Therefore, low sludge concentration is recommended for ASBR treating cassava stillage at an HRT 5 d due to lower TCOD and SS in the effluent, which could facilitate post-treatment. (C) 2009, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.
Occurrence of nephroblastic rests in gastric teratoma has not been described in available literature earlier.”
“Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are species specific and seem to be less conserved than protein-coding genes. Some of them are involved in the development of the lateral mesoderm in the heart and in the differentiation of cardiomyocytes. The purpose of the
study was to investigate the expression profiles of lncRNAs during the differentiation of P19 cells into cardiomyocytes, with a view to studying the biological see more function of lncRNAs and their involvement in the mechanism of heart development. First, we observed the morphology of P19 cells during differentiation using an inverted microscope. Then, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) expression was detected to validate that the cells had successfully differentiated into cardiac myocytes by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time NVP-AUY922 order RT-PCR) and western blotting. Lastly, the expression profile of lncRNA genes was obtained using an lncRNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses. The microarray results showed that 40 lncRNAs were differentially expressed, of which 28 were upregulated and 12 were downregulated in differentiated cardiomyocytes. The differentially expressed lncRNAs were further validated. Our results illustrated a
critical role of lncRNAs during the differentiation of P19 cells into cardiac myocytes, which will provide the foundation for further study of the biological functions of lncRNAs and the mechanism of heart development.”
“In this paper we propose an improved all optical chromatic dispersion
(CD) monitoring method applicable to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems with intensity or phase modulation format. This method can operate over a much larger bandwidth and CD monitoring range and is insensitive to optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD). These BIIB057 order improvements are achieved by utilizing a wavelength tunable laser as the probe to maintain the appropriate phase-matching condition and a loop-back controlled tunable CD compensator to discriminate CD distortions from PMD and OSNR influences. Numerical simulations show that by this method the operational bandwidth and CD monitoring range can be expanded to cover C + L bands and +/- 1600 ps/nm, respectively, for different modulation formats and the sensitivity is higher than the other methods proposed before. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Among the 12 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related central nervous system (CNS) syndromes defined by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), demyelinating syndrome and myelopathy are two of the less prevalent and more poorly understood ones. One important issue concerning demyelinating disease in SLE is that it can be easily misdiagnosed with other central nervous system demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS).
By comparing tumor centers
and invasion fronts, the intratumoral heterogeneity of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations was observed in 8%, 1%, and 5% of primary tumors, respectively. Heterogeneity between primary tumors and lymph node metastases was found in 31% (KRAS), 4% (BRAF), and 13% (PIK3CA) of the cases. Heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases was present in two patients (10%) for KRAS and one patient for PIK3CA (5%), but not for BRAF. Discordant results between primary tumors and metastases could markedly be reduced by testing the CCI-779 in vitro additional tumor samples.\n\nConclusions: Failure of EGFR antibody therapy in patients with wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer may result from activating BRAF or PIK3CA mutations and false-negative sequencing results caused by intratumoral heterogeneity. Due to the particularly high rates of heterogeneity between primary tumors
and lymph node metastases, the latter are least suitable for diagnostic mutation analysis. Clin Cancer Res; 16(3); 790-9. (C) 2010 AACR.”
“Two new metabolites, including a lindenane-type sesquiterpenoid, menelloide C (1), and a germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid, menelloide D (2), were isolated from a Formosan gorgonian coral identified as Menella sp. The structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic methods and 2 displayed a weak inhibitory effect on the release of elastase by human neutrophils.”
“Background\n\nTo date, there is no gold standard therapy for skin VS-6063 clinical trial photoageing. In the last decade,
laser technologies have offered great promise among skin-rejuvenation therapies; however, both non-ablative and ablative fractional resurfacing modalities have their own benefits and drawbacks. More recently, open-label studies and few controlled trials have suggested that photodynamic therapy may have therapeutic potential in photodamage.\n\nObjective\n\nTo assess the efficacy of methyl aminolevulinate + red-light on facial photodamage in a double-blind split-face randomized placebo-controlled trial.\n\nMethods\n\nSubjects had initially two split-face treatments 2-3 weeks apart in which half of the face was treated with MAL + red-light compared MK-0518 supplier with placebo + red-light. Primary outcome was the assessment of global photodamage 1 month after session 2. Secondary outcomes included the assessment of fine lines, mottled pigmentation, tactile roughness, sallowness, erythema and telangiectasia 1 month after session 2, according to severity scores rated as failure, improvement or success.\n\nResults\n\nBased on the intention-to-treat analysis, a total of 48 patients (96 split-faces) were included. Facial global photodamage success or improvement had occurred in 94 split-faces and in no split-faces receiving placebo (RR: 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-0.14; P = 0.0000). One patient had an adverse event that led to the discontinuation of the therapy after session 1.
In a male patient with TS, ADHD, and OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder) we identified two microduplications (at 15q13.3 and Xq21.31) inherited from a mother with subclinical ADHD. The 15q duplication included the CHRNA7 gene; while two genes, PABPC5 and PCDH11X, were within the Xq duplication.
The Xq21.31 duplication was present in three brothers with TS including the proband, but not in an unaffected brother, whereas the 15q duplication was present only in the proband and his mother. The structural variations observed in this family may contribute to the observed symptoms, but further studies are necessary to investigate the possible involvement of the described variations in the VS-6063 cell line TS etiology. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“ISO 15189 has been introduced to enable any clinical laboratory, irrespective of geographic location, to be accredited against internationally recognized standards and therefore facilitate direct international comparison of laboratories. Together www.selleckchem.com/products/tariquidar.html with increasing use of
ISO 15189 for standardization and competition purposes, often triggered by demands of patients and clinicians, clinical flow cytometry laboratories are becoming increasingly challenged to introduce compliant quality management systems. Whilst in most countries, ISO 15189 accreditation is not yet compulsory, there is increasing evidence to suggest that the implementation of this standard is growing. As a result, the European Society of Clinical Cell Analysis (ESCCA) has analysed the impact of accreditation in clinical flow cytometry laboratories. It found, through a discussion forum, that staff qualification, adaptation of multicolour antibody panels, and implementation of a comprehensive quality system (including quality assessment) have been identified as major challenges. (c) 2013 International Clinical Cytometry Society”
“RAP (receptor-associated protein) is a three domain 38 Dibutyryl-cAMP solubility dmso kDa ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-resident
protein that is a chaperone for the LRP (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein). Whereas RAP is known to compete for binding of all known LRP ligands, neither the location, the number of binding sites on LRP, nor the domains of RAP involved in binding is known with certainty. We have systematically examined the binding of each of the three RAP domains (D1, D2 and D3) to tandem and triple CRs (complement-like repeats) that span the principal ligand-binding region, Cluster II, of LRP. We found that D3 binds with low nanomolar affinity to all (CR)(2), species examined. Addition of a third CR domain increases the affinity for D3 slightly. A pH change from 7.4 to 5.
Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies.”
“Ceramides (Cer) comprise the major constituent of sphingolipids in the epidermis and are known to play diverse roles in the outermost layers of the skin including water retention and provision of a physical baffler. In addition, they can be hydrolyzed into free sphingoid
bases such as C(18) sphingosine (SO) and C(18) sphinganine (SA) or can be further metabolized to C(18) So-1-phosphate (S1P) and C(18) Sa-1-phosphate (Sa1P) in keratinocytes. The significance of ceramide metabolites emerged from studies reporting altered levels of SO and SA in skin disorders and the role of S1P and Sal P as selleck screening library signaling
lipids. However, the overall metabolism of sphingoid bases and their phosphates during keratinocyte differentiation remains not fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed these Cer metabolites in the process of keratinocyte differentiation. Three distinct keratinocyte differentiation stages were prepared using 0.07 mM calcium (Ca(2+)) (proliferation stage), 1.2 mM Ca(2+) (early differentiation stage) in serum-free medium, or serum-containing medium with vitamin C (50 mu L/mL) (late differentiation stage). Serum-containing medium was also used to determine whether vitamin C increases the concentrations of sphingoid bases and their phosphates. The production of 3-Methyladenine nmr sphingoid bases and their phosphates after hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to cells treated with 0.07 mM Ca(2+), levels of SO, SA, S1P, and SA1P were not altered after treatment with 1.2 mM Ca(2+). However, in keratinocytes cultured in serum-containing medium with vitamin C, levels of SO, SA, S1P, and SA1P were dramatically higher than those in 0.07- and 1.2-mM Ca(2+)-treated
cells; however, compared to serum-containing medium alone, vitamin C did not significantly enhance their production. Taken together, we demonstrate that late differentiation induced by vitamin C and serum was accompanied by dramatic increases in the concentration of sphingoid bases and their phosphates; although vitamin C alone had no effect on their production.”
“The German Working Group on Indoor Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and of the Supreme State Health Authorities is issuing indoor air guide values to protect public health. No reliable human studies are available for health evaluation of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) in indoor air. In a well documented chronic inhalation animal study with rats assessed as reliable, nephrotoxic effects were observed, which led to an increased incidence and severity of the chronic progressive nephropathy, especially in females. Using a benchmark approach the Working Group assessed a BMDL10 of 57 mg MIBK/m(3) for continuous exposure for the endpoint nephrotoxicity.
The single-port approach was abandoned in four (3.7%) patients with severe pelvic adhesion-an additional port was opened for extensive adhesiolysis. None of the patients with a voluminous uterus needed an additional port. There were no major intraoperative or postoperative complications. Conclusion: The single-port approach using straight, conventional laparoscopic instruments was feasible and safe in the majority of the patients undergoing hysterectomy, Birinapant mouse and was found to be accessible even in cases with a large uterus. The patients benefitted from this approach and had less abdominal wounds.
However, patients with a voluminous uterus tended to have more intraoperative blood loss, and in some cases
with severe adhesions, additional port(s) were required MLN2238 molecular weight for surgical effectiveness. Copyright (C) 2014, Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To investigate the distribution profile of hen egg lysozyme (HEL) through poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA)-based lens materials and silicone hydrogel (SH) lens materials using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Methods: Five silicone SH materials (balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, galyfilcon A, senofilcon A) and four pHEMA-based materials (alphafilcon A, etafilcon A, omafilcon A, vifilcon A) were incubated in 1.9 mg/ml protein solution for 24 hours. The protein solution consisted of HEL, which was conjugated with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or lucifer yellow VS dilithium salt (LY). CLSM (Zeiss LSM 510 META) identified the location of the fluorescently labeled protein by using 1 mu m depth scans through the lens. In a second experiment, lenses were incubated with 2% (125)I labeled HEL to determine the amount of deposited
protein on each lens. Both techniques were combined to describe the individual HEL profiles. Results: After the incubation in fluorescently labeled HEL, all pHEMA-based materials and the SH material balafilcon A accumulated protein throughout the entire lens material, while, for the SH lenses lotrafilcon A and lotrafilcon B, HEL ALK assay was primarily detected on the lens surface alone. Differences in protein uptake pattern due solely to the two conjugated dyes were most apparent for the SH materials galyfilcon A and senofilcon A; HEL was detected throughout these lenses when conjugated with LY but accumulated primarily on the surface when conjugated with FITC. Conclusion: CLSM in combination with a radiolabel technique can describe both the location and degree of protein deposition on different contact lens materials.”
“The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist infliximab was recently found to reduce depressive symptoms in patients with increased baseline inflammation as reflected by a plasma C-reactive protein concentration >5 mg/L.
We speculate that practice-related gray matter signal changes in MRI are primarily related to synaptic remodeling within specific processing areas.”
“The ability of primate embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into dopamine (DA)-synthesizing neurons has raised hopes of creating novel cell therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD). As the primary
purpose of cell transplantation in PD is restoration of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum, in vivo assessment of DA function after grafting is necessary to achieve better therapeutic effects. A chronic model of PD was produced in two cynomolgus monkeys (M-1 and M-2) by systemic administration CH5424802 mouse of neurotoxin. Neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from cynomolgus ES cells were implanted unilaterally
in the putamen. To evaluate DA-specific functions, we used multiple [(11)C]-labeled positron emission tomography Semaxanib (PET) tracers, including [beta-(11)C]L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-[beta-(11)C]DOPA, DA precursor ligand), [(11)C]-2 beta-carbomethoxy3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([(11)C]beta-CFT, DA transporter ligand) and [(11)C]raclopride (D(2) receptor ligand). At 12 weeks after grafting NSCs, PET demonstrated significantly increased uptake of L-[beta-(11)C]DOPA (M-1:41%, M-2:61%) and [(11)C]beta-CFT (M-1:31%, M-2:36%) uptake in the grafted putamen. In addition, methamphetamine challenge in M-2 induced reduced [(11)C]raclopride binding (16%) in the transplanted putamen, suggesting release of DA. These results show that transplantation of NSCs derived from cynomolgus monkey ES cells can restore DA function in the putamen of a primate model of PD. PET with multitracers is useful for functional studies in developing cell-based therapies against PD. Synapse 63:541-548, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the performance of minimal beneficial leisure-time physical activity in the first half of pregnancy according to the criteria of the American College of Sport and Medicine (ACSM) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Material and methods. This was a cross-sectional
study carried out at the Maternal and Neonatal University Hospital in Granada, which services the whole population of the hospital reference area. We studied 1,175 healthy pregnant women aged over 18 years. Information Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil about sociodemographics, lifestyles, obstetric antecedents and anthropometric variables were collected. The amount of leisure-time physical activity was quantified by assigning metabolic equivalents to each activity. The ACSM and ACOG criteria were used to define optimal physical activity in the first half of pregnancy. The frequency of compliance for both criteria was estimated. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to study the factors associated with the recommendations. Results. Only 20.3% (95% confidence interval 15.50-26.10) of the women complied with ACOG criteria.
2% males, mean age = 12.1 +/- 2.4 years, mean age at diagnosis = 7.5
+/- 2.9 years) and 53 adults (41.2% males, mean age 38.7 +/- 14.5 years, mean age at diagnosis = 17.5 +/- 12.9 years) with type 1 diabetes participated. The most common symptoms in adults were hunger, sweating, trembling and weakness. The most common symptoms in children were weakness, trembling and hunger. The 2 most discriminating variables between children and adults were sleepiness and tiredness, which were more common in children (p smaller than 0.01). In a comparative factor analysis, 3 factors emerged: factor 1, autonomic and neuroglycopenic; factor 2, behavioural; and factor 3, general malaise. Factors 2 and 3 were significantly more common or intense in children than in adults; MANOVA: F(1,113) = 6.72, p smaller than 0.05 and F(1,113) = 4.64, p smaller than 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Symptoms relating to behaviour and general malaise are more selleck compound Sapanisertib PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor common in
children than in adults with type 1 diabetes. The results of this study may assist providers in educating caregivers of children and patients with diabetes how to better recognize episodes of hypoglycemia. (C) 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association”
“Austin Flint murmur is a mid-diastolic rumbling audible in subjects with severe aortic regurgitation. Several theories have been raised to explain mechanistically the nature of this particular phenomenon. We briefly review severe aortic regurgitation under the light of contemporary echocardiography in an illustrative case. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated the intestinal parasites of,I wild fish Population in a Kansas stream to determine the prevalence and abundance of potentially harmful parasites. In total, 180 red shiners (Cyprinella lutrensis) were collected from 6 sites in October-November
2007, Fifteen Asian tapeworms (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) were recovered from 13 fish (prevalence of 7.2%). Prevalence did not differ among sites; however, B. acheilognathi abundance was greatest at the site of a public fishing area. A total MK-2206 cost of 39 roundworms (Rhabdochona canadensis) were recovered from 28 fish (prevalence of 15.6%). Prevalence did not differ among sites. nor did abundance. However. mean abundance tended to be about 50% greater at the site of a public fishing area compared to all other sites. This paper documents the presence of both B. acheilognathi and R. canadensis in Kansas and offers a compilation of the known potential impacts these parasites may have on the native, federally endangered Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka).”
“Axially chiral amino acid derivatives were synthesized via a selective single-step monoesterification of 1,1′-binaphthyl-2,2′-dicarboxylic acids. In the presence of Ag2CO3, the alkylative monoesterification of a 1,1′-binaphthyl-2,2′-dicarboxylic acid with an alkyl halide proceeded selectively in a single operation.