Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks Results:

Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Results: Phase I consisted of 120 people who completed the PDQ-39. Phase II consisted of

9 in the SC group and 10 in the INT group. In Phase I, quality of life was poorer in the malnourished, particularly for mobility and activities of daily living domains. There was a significant correlation between PG-SGA and PDQ-39 scores (Phase I, r(s) = 0.445, p =.000; Phase II, r(s) =.426, p =.002). In Phase II, no significant difference in the PDQ-39 total or sub-scores was observed between the INT and SC groups; however, there was significant improvement in the emotional well-being domain for the entire group, X-2(2) = 8.84, p =.012. Conclusions: Malnourished Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil people with Parkinson’s disease had poorer quality of life than the well-nourished, and improvements in nutritional status resulted in quality of life improvements.

Attention to nutritional status is an important component of quality selleck kinase inhibitor of life and therefore the total care of people with Parkinson’s disease.”
“Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays a crucial role both in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. MCP-1 is a unique cytokine produced by macrophages, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells within atherosclerotic plaques and seems to be a reliable indicator of atherosclerotic plaque burden. Higher levels of MCP-1 have been associated with a poor prognosis and increased risk for death independent of other risk factors in patients with acute coronary syndromes. In this paper, we discussed the role of MCP-1 in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims:\n\nAnaerobic sludge granules underpin high-rate waste-to-energy bioreactors. Granulation is a microbiological phenomenon involving the self-immobilization of several trophic groups. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion of wastes

is of intense interest because of the economic advantages of unheated bioenergy production technologies. However, low-temperature granulation of anaerobic sludge has not yet been demonstrated. P505-15 Angiogenesis inhibitor The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the feasibility of anaerobic sludge granulation in cold (15 degrees C) bioreactors and (ii) observe the development of methanogenic activity and microbial community structure in developing cold granules.\n\nMethods and Results:\n\nOne mesophilic (R1; 37 degrees C) and two low-temperature (R2 and R3, 15 degrees C) laboratory-scale, expanded granular sludge bed bioreactors were seeded with crushed (diameter < 0 center dot 4 mm) granules and were fed a glucose-based wastewater for 194 days. Bioreactor performance was assessed by chemical oxygen demand removal, biogas production, granule growth and temporal methanogenic activity. Granulation was observed in R2 and R3 (up to 33% of the sludge).

A search of the literature yielded no comprehensive studies of me

A search of the literature yielded no comprehensive studies of medical problems of any single national contingent now serving in Afghanistan. A review of medical reports was made of the Polish Military Contingent in Operation Enduring Freedom from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. Due to various reasons, 9.1% to 22.8% of all deployed Polish soldiers were unable to continue active duty. Acute respiratory infections and infectious and non-infectious gastrointestinal STI571 price disorders are the main causes of temporary inability to serve. An important problem in the

Polish soldiers is also dental health. Predicting the combat capability of Polish forces in Afghanistan and planning of its Pitavastatin manufacturer medical security requires the inclusion of the seasonality factor.\n\nMaterial/Methods: This study is a review of medical records of the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan, covering the period from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011, from records and data maintained by the Armed Forces Operational Command. (changes: IX and X). All cases were soldiers unable to continue active military duty due to health reasons.\n\nResults: The analysis shows that among the soldiers of PKW there occurred varied medical events, which directly or through further complications

were the cause of temporary inability to serve and which sometimes were the ultimate cause of an evacuation to the home country.\n\nConclusions: Acute respiratory infections and infectious and non-infectious gastrointestinal disorders were the main cause of temporary inability to serve.”
“Background: Assessment of peak oxygen

uptake (VO(2)) is recommended in the evaluation of patients with borderline pulmonary function as VO(2) is the strongest independent predictor of postoperative pulmonary complications. However, the measurement CUDC-907 of VO(2) requires expensive equipment not available in many medical facilities. The shuttle walking test (SWT) has been proposed to be used as a screening tool prior to performing a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Although an association exists between SWT distance and VO(2), only one small study directly measured VO(2) during the SWT. Objectives: The aim of this study was to further validate the VO(2)-SWT association by directly measuring VO(2) during SWT in a larger cohort of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Fifty stable COPD patients with mild/severe disease were studied. Each patient performed an SWT while wearing a validated portable metabolic monitor. Results: Mean VO(2) (ml/kg/min) measured after each finalized minute of the SWT was (95% confidence interval): 6 (5-7), 9 (8-10), 11 (10-12), 13 (11-14), 15 (14-16), 18 (16-20) and 21 (18-26) for minutes 1-7, respectively. Patients that completed the British Thoracic Society-recommended 25 shuttles (5 min or 250 m) in the SWT had a mean VO(2) of 15 (14-16).

Testing for UGT1A1 was cost-effective ( smaller

Testing for UGT1A1 was cost-effective ( smaller LY2157299 TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor than $ 100,000/QALY) if assay cost decreased to $ 10, or if avoiding hyperbilirubinaemia by UGT1A1 testing reduced loss to follow-up by 5%. If atazanavir and darunavir differed in cost or efficacy, testing for UGT1A1 was not cost-effective under any scenario. Conclusions: Testing for UGT1A1 may be cost-effective if assay cost is low and if testing improves retention in care, but only if the comparator ART

regimens have the same drug cost and efficacy.”
“BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Retention and recruitment of minority faculty members continues to be a concern of medical schools because there is higher attrition and talent loss among this group. While much has been written, there has not been a systematic review published on this topic. This is the NVP-AUY922 clinical trial first study to use evidence-based medicine (EBM) criteria and apply it to this issue. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Pro Quest, and Google Scholar for papers relating to the recruitment and retention of minority faculty. We then graded the evidence using the EBM criteria as defined by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The same criteria were applied to extract evidence-based observations of problems in recruitment and retention for minority faculty. RESULTS: Of the 548 studies identified and reviewed, 11 met inclusion criteria for this literature review. This article presents

the data from the reviewed papers

that described or evaluated minority faculty development programs. Faculty development programs in 15 different institutions showed mentoring and faculty development for minority faculty could increase retention, academic productivity, and promotion rates for this group. CONCLUSIONS: For medical schools to be successful in retention and recruitment of minority medical school faculty, specific programs need to be in place. Overall evidence is strong that faculty development programs and mentoring programs increase retention, productivity, and promotion for this group of medical faculty. This paper is a call to action for more faculty development and mentorship programs to reduce the disparities that exist JQ-EZ-05 price between minority faculty and all other faculty members.”
“The lac operon has been a paradigm for genetic regulation with positive feedback, and several modeling studies have described its dynamics at various levels of detail. However, it has not yet been analyzed how stochasticity can enrich the system’s behavior, creating effects that are not observed in the deterministic case. To address this problem we use a comparative approach. We develop a reaction network for the dynamics of the lac operon genetic switch and derive corresponding deterministic and stochastic models that incorporate biological details. We then analyze the effects of key biomolecular mechanisms, such as promoter strength and binding affinities, on the behavior of the models.

Methodology:An anonymous, self-administered


\n\nMethodology:An anonymous, self-administered

questionnaire was used for the study which inquired about gender, number of daily smoked cigarettes, feeling addicted, attempt and success or failure at quitting, most important factor that helped in quitting smoking and reasons of smoking were compared between the medical college and non-medical college students.\n\nResults: The total medical college students in the study were 444 and among them 32.7% were smokers. The total non-medical college students were 405 and among them 41% were smokers (p=0.012). Nine point seven percent medical students and only 6% non-medical students were successful in quitting their habit of smoking (p=0.231).\n\nConclusion: There was significant difference in smoking behaviour among the group. Being medical students it had effect on the decision to smoke, which may have modified their consumption level.”
“Separation PND-1186 of unshelled peanuts containing three or more kernels and then niche marketing them can potentially Napabucasin purchase increase the value of unshelled peanuts and thus the profit

of peanut producers or processors. Effective identification of peanut pods with three or more kernels is a critical step prior to separation. In this study, a machine vision system was teamed up with neural network technique to discriminate unshelled peanuts into two groups: one with three or more kernels and the other with two or less kernels. A set of physical features including the number of bumps, projected area, length and perimeter, etc., were extracted from the images taken and used to train an artificial neural network check details for discriminating the peanuts. It was found that among all the selected features, the length, the major axis length and perimeter have the best correlation with the number of kernels

(correlation coefficient r = 0.87-0.88); the area and convex area have good correlation (r = 0.85); the eccentricity, number of bumps, and the compactness have relatively lower correction (r = 0.77-0.80); the solidity and the minor axis length have the least correlation to the number of kernels (r = -0.415-0.26). The best discrimination accuracy obtained for peanut pods with three or more kernels was 92.5% for the conditions used in this study.”
“1. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms identified within the ADSL (adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency) gene and GARS-AIRS-GART (glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase-glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase) gene with the content of inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) was studied in a population of male Beijing-you (BJY) chickens slaughtered at 90 d of age. 2. A single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 2 of the ADSL gene had an effect on IMP content.


First, STAT inhibitor poly(etheretherketone) surface activation with selective carbonyl reduction introduces surface hydroxylation. And then treatment of the hydroxylation-pretreated poly(etheretherketone) samples with a substituted organosilane solution

forms the carboxyl (-COOH) functional surface layers. The modified surfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and surface profiler. The effect of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on each specimen was investigated. Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading, and proliferation were improved remarkably on surface-carboxylated poly(etheretherketone). Poly(etheretherketone) modified with -COOH on its surface has potential use in orthopedic or dental implants.”
“Cephalostatin 1 is a natural compound isolated from a marine worm that induces apoptosis in tumor cells via an apoptosome-independent but caspase-9-dependent pathway and through an endoplasmic reticulum stress response that is accompanied by caspase-4 activation. Here, we show that cephalostatin evokes mitochondrial Smac (second mitochondria-derived PRIMA-1MET in vivo activator of caspases) but

not cytochrome c release in various carcinoma cell lines. We also show that Smac is critically involved in caspase-9 activation as evidenced by gene silencing experiments. Remarkably, caspase-2 appears to be a major target for cephalostatin-induced cytosolic Smac. Using biochemical and genetic inhibition experiments, we demonstrate that caspase-2 participates in the apoptotic machinery induced by cephalostatin. Cephalostatin-activated

caspase-2 appears to act as initiator caspase and is not involved in the activation of caspase-9. Importantly, experiments immunoprecipitating ERK inhibitor PIDD (p53-induced protein with a DD), RAIDD (RIP-associated ICH-1/CED-3-homologous protein with DD) and caspase-2 identify cephalostatin as an experimental drug that induces the formation of the PIDDosome. The bis-steroid cephalostatin proves to be both a helpful tool to investigate apoptotic signaling and a promising chemotherapeutic agent.”
“Epidemiologic data on incidence, prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progression to kidney failure in people a parts per thousand yen70 years are scarce. This lack may have two reasons: First, the issue has only recently gained importance by the changing demographics characterized by an aging society. Secondly, a validated method for estimating kidney function in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the elderly is still lacking. In this paper we describe the methodology of a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional approach of a population based study which will start in January 2010.

Statistical analysis of the growth data (optical density and numb

Statistical analysis of the growth data (optical density and number of cell-forming units) showed that bacterium grew significantly more on MSG than on mLV or DCR during the 48-h cocultivation. This enhanced growth

was attributed to the higher concentration of L-glutamine in MSG. Lowering the S63845 cost concentration of L-glutamine in MSG to 0.5 gl(-1) resulted in similar growth of Agrobacterium compared with the other two media. MSG was also superior for the growth of radiata pine cells, with a statistically significant difference after 14 d of culture. Hence, to avoid bacterial overgrowth during and after cocultivation, a two-medium protocol was developed in which cocultivation was carried out on mLV, followed by 5 d on mLV with 400 mgl(-1) Timentin. Selection for transformed cells and further control of bacterial growth was then performed using MSG with Timentin and Geneticin. By sequential application of these two media, 2,096 cell colonies were selected; of these, 94 were analyzed and 49 were transgenic. These

results highlight yet another factor that might be critical for the success of transformation experiments but has not been sufficiently studied until now: the growth dynamics and ability to eliminate A. tumefaciens on various plant tissue culture media.”
“Aims Previous studies have suggested that right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing may have deleterious effects on left ventricular ATM signaling pathway function. Whether right ventricular SRT2104 price non-apical (RVNA) pacing offers a better alternative to RVA pacing is unclear. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) in order to compare the mid-and long-term effects of RVA and RVNA pacing.\n\nMethods and results We systematically searched the Cochrane library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases for RCTs comparing RVA with RVNA pacing over > 2 months follow-up. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Fourteen RCTs met our inclusion criteria

involving 754 patients. Compared with subjects randomized to RVA pacing, those randomized to RVNA pacing had greater left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) at the end of follow-up [13 RCTs: weighted mean difference (WMD) 4.27%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15%, 7.40%]. RVNA had a better LVEF at the end of follow-up in RCTs with follow-up >= 12 months (WMD 7.53%, 95% CI 2.79%, 12.27%), those with,12 months of follow-up (WMD 1.95%, 95% CI 0.17%, 3.72%), and those conducted in patients with baseline LVEF <= 40-45% (WMD 3.71%, 95% CI 0.72%, 6.70%); no significant difference was observed in RCTs of patients whose baseline LVEF was preserved. Randomized-controlled trials provided inconclusive results with respect to exercise capacity, functional class, quality of life, and survival.

In the present work, we have optimized the parameters critical to

In the present work, we have optimized the parameters critical to the application of BAC DNA

electrotransformation into E. coli. Systematic evaluation of electroporation variables has revealed several key factors like temperature of growth, media supplements, washing buffer, and cell concentration. Improvements made in the transformation protocol have led to electrocompetent cells with transformation efficiency up to 7 x 10(8) see more transformants per microgram of 120 kbp BAC plasmid DNA. We have successfully used in-house prepared competent cells, the quality of which is comparable with those produced by different companies, in the construction of metagenomic libraries from the soil. Our protocol can also be beneficial

for other application with limited DNA source.”
“We prepared boron-doped Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 (Si:B/SiGe) multilayers sputter-deposited on quartz glass substrates, and investigated their structural and thermoelectric properties. These samples were processed by using conventional whole-layer annealing and layer-by-layer annealing methods. Si:B/SiGe multilayer samples annealed layer-by-layer showed good periodicity with well-defined interfaces as compared with conventionally annealed samples (whole-layer annealing). However, Ge diffusion was observed at the interfaces near substrates since the SiGe layer near the substrates suffered a longer integrated annealing time during the layer-by-layer annealing process. It was found that the Si:B/SiGe multilayer annealed layer-by-layer showed thermally stable thermoelectric selleck chemicals properties in a wide temperature range from 50 to 800 degrees C. The present experiment proved that

the layer-by-layer-annealing method is an effective way of achieving stable and reliable thermoelectric properties in Si:B/SiGe multilayer micro-thermoelectric devices. (C) 2014 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a major Ca2+ signaling pathway responsible for regulating numerous transcriptional events. In cardiomyocytes SOCE has been shown to play an important role in regulating hypertrophic signaling pathways, including nuclear translocation of selleck kinase inhibitor NFAT. Acute activation of pathways leading to O-GlcNAc synthesis have been shown to impair SOCE-mediated transcription and in diabetes, where O-GlcNAc levels are chronically elevated, cardiac hypertrophic signaling is also impaired. Therefore the goal of this study was to determine whether changes in cardiomyocyte O-GlcNAc levels impaired the function of STIM1, a widely recognized mediator of SOCE. We demonstrated that acute activation of SOCE in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in STIM1 puncta formation, which was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by increasing O-GlcNAc synthesis with glucosamine or inhibiting O-GlcNAcase with thiamet-G.

Control of inflammation may have an effect on modifying cardiovas

Control of inflammation may have an effect on modifying cardiovascular risk. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 38:372-381″
“Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an inorganic constituent compound of human bones and teeth, with superior biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Its crystal structure is hexagonal, characterized by a(b)- and c-planes. In Selleckchem PP2 vertebrate long bones, HAp crystals have a c-axis orientation, while in tooth enamel, they have an a(b)-axis orientation.

Many methods can be used to synthesize c-axis oriented HAp single crystals; however, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a synthesis method for a(b)-axis oriented HAp single crystals. In this study, we successfully synthesized plate-like HAp crystals at the air-liquid interface of a starting solution via an enzyme reaction of urea with urease. Crystal phase analysis and ultrastructure observations were carried out, and the results indicated that the particles were single crystals, with almost the same a(b)-axis orientation as tooth enamel. It is hoped that by utilizing their unique surface charge and atomic arrangement, the resulting particles can be used as a high-performance

biomaterial, capable of adsorbing bio-related substances and a model for tooth enamel. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“To further understand the process of Al-induced citrate secretion from soybean roots, the effect of protein synthesis inhibitor, anion channel blockers, and citrate carrier inhibitors on Al-induced citrate exudation was investigated in Al-resistant soybean cultivar PI 416937. Citrate exudation from roots increased with the Crenigacestat increase of Al concentration from 10 to 50 mu M and initiated after 4 h of Al exposure. Protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHM; 25 mu M) completely inhibited Al-induced citrate secretion during 12-h exposure,

suggesting that novel protein synthesis was necessary in Al-induced citrate efflux. Also both anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C) and citrate carrier inhibitor mersalyl acid Adavosertib nmr (Mersalyl) significantly reduced citrate secretion, suggesting that both anion channels in plasma membrane and citrate carriers in mitochondria membrane were the rate limiting factors of Al dependent citrate release. However, Al-induced citrate secretion was insensitive to anion channel blockers phenylglyoxal (PG), 4,4′-diisothiocyanostibene-2,2′-disulfonat (DIDS) and citrate carrier inhibitor pyridoxal 5′-P (PP).”
“Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend.

05) Vaginal

05). Vaginal lubrication in the surgically menopausal group was lower than in the naturally menopausal group (P smaller than 0.05). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, prolactin, and thyrotropin levels were

not statistically different between the groups (P bigger than 0.05), whereas serum estradiol and total testosterone levels in the surgically menopausal group were lower than those of the naturally menopausal group (P smaller than 0.05). ConclusionThe results of this study showed that surgical menopause did not affect female sexual performance differently from natural menopause, with the exception of vaginal lubrication. Kokcu A, Kurtoglu E, Bildircin D, Celik H, Kaya A, and Alper T. Does surgical menopause affect sexual performance differently from natural menopause? J Sex Med 2015;12:1407-1414.”
“Proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF) induces muscle loss in cancer cachexia through a high affinity membrane bound receptor. This study investigates the mechanism by which the PIF receptor communicates to intracellular signalling pathways. C2C12 murine myoblasts were used as a model using PIF purified from MAC16 turnouts. Calcium imaging was determined using fura-4-acetoxymethyl selleck screening library ester (Fura-4-AM). PIF induced a rapid rise in Ca-i(2+), which was completely attenuated by a anti-receptor antibody,

or peptides representing 20 mers of the N-terminus of the PIF receptor. Other learn more agents catabolic for skeletal muscle including angiotensin II (AngII) tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also induced a rise in Ca-i(2+), but this was not attenuated by anti-PIF-receptor antibody. The rise in Ca-i(2+) induced by PIF and AngII was completely attenuated by the Zn2+ chelator D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-triphosphate, and this was reversed by administration of exogenous Zn2+. The Ca-i(2+) rise induced by PIF was independent of the presence of extracellular Ca2+, and attenuated by the Ca2+ pump inhibitor thapsigargin, suggesting that the Ca-i(2+) rise was due to release from intracellular

stores. This rise in Ca-i(2+) induced by PIF was attenuated by both the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and 2-APB, an inhibitor of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein. Binding of the PIF to its receptor in skeletal muscle triggers a rise in Ca-i(2+), which initiates a signalling cascade leading to a depression in protein synthesis, and an increase in protein degradation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A flexible, low-cost, high-brightness light source for biological and biomedical imaging is presented. The illuminating device consists of a custom-size square plastic pouch 10 to 20 mm on a side and 1 to 3 mm thick that can be inserted fully or partially into both in situ or in vitro specimens to be imaged.

The strain was also detected in one endoscope used for these exam

The strain was also detected in one endoscope used for these examinations.\n\nDisc diffusion assays, MICs and isoelectric focusing were used to characterize the plasmidic CTX-M-15 -lactamase. PCRs were Ruboxistaurin price used to check for the presence of genes associated

with virulence or antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic tolerance tests and plasmid transfer were carried out in both planktonic and biofilm conditions.\n\nThe strain belonged to sequence type 14 and to the virulent capsular serotype K2, but produced little glucuronic acid. It contained a 62.5 kb conjugative plasmid carrying the bla(CTX-M-15), bla(OXA-1) and aac(6)-Ib-cr genes and harboured few virulence genes (uge, wabG, kfu and mrkD). The strain was highly resistant to cefotaxime (MIC

516 mg/L) and the presence of this antibiotic at sub-MIC concentrations enhanced biofilm formation. The isolate was susceptible to ofloxacin (MIC 2 mg/L), but the bactericidal effect of this antibiotic was greater in planktonic cultures and 6 h old biofilm than in 24 or 48 h old biofilms. The K. pneumoniae strain was notable Wnt inhibitor for its ability to transfer its plasmid, especially in biofilm conditions, in which the rate of plasmid transfer was about 0.5/donor.\n\nThese findings demonstrate the ability of this strain to survive in a hospital environment and to transfer its extended-spectrum -lactamase-encoding plasmid.”
“Tungsten alloys are composed of

tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. To understand the toxicology of these alloys, male F344 rats were intramuscularly implanted with pellets of tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, or pure tungsten, with tantalum pellets as a negative control. Between 6 and LY294002 clinical trial 12 months, aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas formed around tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets, while those of tungsten/nickel/iron or pure tungsten did not cause cancers. Electron microscopy showed a progressive corrosion of the matrix phase of tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets over 6 months, accompanied by high urinary concentrations of nickel and cobalt. In contrast, non-carcinogenic tungsten/nickel/iron pellets were minimally corroded and urinary metals were low; these pellets having developed a surface oxide layer in vivo that may have restricted the mobilization of carcinogenic nickel. Microarray analysis of tumors revealed large changes in gene expression compared with normal muscle, with biological processes involving the cell cycle significantly up-regulated and those involved with muscle development and differentiation significantly down-regulated. Top KEGG pathways disrupted were adherens junction, p53 signaling, and the cell cycle.