4-2 7) The resultant values were within the applicable range for

4-2.7). The resultant values were within the applicable range for dielectric materials in integrated circuits. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3192-3200,

“Solution processed multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on different molecular weight host have been investigated. A PLED based on high molecular weight poly (vinyl carbazole) PVKH and low molecular weight poly (vinyl carbazole) PVKL, doped with iridium, tris (2-phenylpyidine) Ir(ppy)(3) as a host-guest emitting layer (EML), shows a dramatic increase in device efficiency. When the PVKH was used as a hole transport electron blocking layer (HT-EBL), effective electron blocking was achieved, which leads to an increase exciton www.selleckchem.com/products/prt062607-p505-15-hcl.html population in the phosphorescent zone. The use of low molecular weight PVKL as a host material in the top layer prevents barrier formation LY294002 clinical trial for hole transport from the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene) (PEDOT)-EBL to the EML. External quantum efficiency of 11%, current efficiencies of 38 cd/A, power efficiency of 13 lm/W and brightness

of 7000 cd/m(2), were obtained. The effect of the PVKH layer on the electrical and optical device characteristics was investigated. Simulation of the optical outcoupling using SETFOS 3.1 software is in agreed with the observed results and allowed us to predict the emissive dipole location and distribution in the EML layer. The effect of the PVKH on the exciton quenching by the electrodes was also investigated using time resolved fluorescence photon counting, which indicates weak exciton quenching by the PEDOT layer and the device enhancement predominantly achieved by exciton confinement in the emissive layer. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3569831]“
“A high level of robustness against gene deletion is observed in many organisms. However, it is

still not clear which biochemical features underline this robustness and how these are acquired during evolution. One hypothesis, specific to metabolic networks, is that robustness emerges as a byproduct of selection for biomass production in different environments. To test this hypothesis we performed evolutionary simulations of metabolic networks under stable and fluctuating environments. We find that networks Nepicastat order evolved under the latter scenario can better tolerate single gene deletion in specific environments. Such robustness is underlined by an increased number of independent fluxes and multifunctional enzymes in the evolved networks. Observed robustness in networks evolved under fluctuating environments was “”apparent,”" in the sense that it decreased significantly as we tested effects of gene deletions under all environments experienced during evolution. Furthermore, when we continued evolution of these networks under a stable environment, we found that any robustness they had acquired was completely lost.

Better knowledge of the risk factors for PSD should increase the

Better knowledge of the risk factors for PSD should increase the effectiveness GW3965 nmr of preventive strategies in patients with this condition.”
“In morbidly obese patients (MO), adequate levels of venous return (VR) and left ventricular filling pressures (LVFP) are crucial

in order to augment perioperative safety. Rapid weight loss (RWL) preparation with very low calorie diet is commonly used aiming to facilitate bariatric surgery. However, the impact of RWL on VR and LVFP is poorly studied.

In this prospective, controlled, single-center study, we hypothesized that RWL-prepared MO prior to bariatric surgery can be hypovolemic (i.e., low VR) and compared MO to lean controls with conventional overnight fasting. Twenty-eight morbidly obese patients were scheduled consecutively for bariatric surgery and 19 lean individuals (control group, CG) for elective general surgery. Preoperative assessment of VR, LVFP, and biventricular heart function was performed by a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) protocol to all patients in the awake state. Assessment of VR and LVFP was made by inferior vena cava maximal diameter (IVCmax) and inferior vena cava collapsibility index- (IVCCI) derived right atrial pressure estimations.

A majority of MO (71.4 %) were hypovolemic vs. 15.8 % of lean controls (p < 0.001, odds

ratio = 13.3). IVCmax was shorter in MO than in CG (p < 0.001). IVCCI was higher Z-IETD-FMK order in MO (62.1

+/- 23 %) vs. controls (42.6 +/- 20.8; p < 0.001). Even left atrium anterior-posterior diameter was shorter in MO compared to CG.

Preoperative RWL may induce hypovolemia in morbidly obese patients. Hypovolemia in MO was more common vs. lean controls. TTE is a rapid and feasible tool for assessment of preload even in morbid obesity.”
“Mitral annular calcification is associated with significant morbidity E7438 and mortality at the time of mitral valve surgery. However, few data are available describing the impact of mitral annular calcification on early and late outcomes following mitral valve repair in the current era.

Between 2001 and 2011, 625 patients were referred for mitral valve repair of severe mitral regurgitation due to myxomatous degeneration. The mean patient age was 63.9 +/- 12.7 years and 164 (26%) were female. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 91 (15%) and 24 (4%) had previous cardiac surgery. Calcification of the mitral annulus was observed in 119 patients (19%), of whom complete debridement and extensive annulus reconstruction were performed in 14. The mean follow-up was for 2.4 +/- 2.3 years.

There were no deaths within 30 days of surgery. Risk factors associated with mitral annular calcification included older age (odds ratio 1.05 +/- 0.02 per increasing year), female gender (odds ratio 1.88 +/- 0.42) and larger preoperative left atrial size (odds ratio 1.04 +/- 0.


Methods GSK2879552 The SEIQoL-DW was administered according to its instructions within a Phase II RCT 3-5 times per patient, across 13 patients and the process audio-recorded. Quantitative and qualitative criteria were used to assess feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness. Qualitative analysis of the transcripts and fieldwork notes was conducted using Framework Analysis.


The SEIQoL-DW steps (of identifying five quality of life cues, rating their functioning and importance) were completed at 48/51 interviews. However, some respondents were overwhelmed by the scripted introduction, experienced difficulty with cue identification, and focused only on certain types of cues (Step 1); some had difficulty interpreting and rating the concept of Step 2; and some had difficulty interpreting ‘importance’ and manipulating the SEIQoL-DW disc (Step 3).

Conclusions Patients with advanced COPD were able to complete the SEIQoL-DW but analysis of its administration identified practical

and conceptual concerns which question the validity of the results obtained. Suggestions for the development of the SEIQoL-DW and future feasibility studies are given.”
“Objective. There are many external influences in today’s market force that impair the relationship between the pain medicine specialist and the patient, and ultimately prevent optimal quality of care. This article explores the ethical challenges SU5402 inhibitor facing the pain medicine specialist in today’s increasingly business environment and will offer solutions

for maintaining the professionalism of pain medicine. Discussion. Four commonly encountered bioethical principles in the practice of pain medicine are reviewed: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. The following ethical challenges of the pain medicine specialist are reviewed: practicing outside ones specialty area, practice characteristics, the consultant role, the 4SC-202 cell line economic lure of aggressive intervention, not evaluating for and treating comorbid psychopathology, reimbursement pressures, workers’ compensation, and use of unproven methods. Conclusions. Solutions offered include collegial associations, social responsibility, legislative initiatives, pain education, interdisciplinary evaluation and treatment, improved relationships with third-party payers, reduced racial disparities, and ethics education. Ethics is the roadmap that enables the pain medicine specialist to navigate the increasingly murky waters of practicing pain management today by maintaining the professionalism necessary to combat today’s business pressures.”
“Purpose This randomized clinical equivalence trial was designed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after fast-track treatment for low-risk coronary artery bypass (CABG) patients.

Conclusions The automated patient-specific simulation of CD surg

Conclusions. The automated patient-specific simulation of CD surgery may improve our understanding of surgical biomechanics. Therefore, it could increase the relevance of preoperative surgery planning.”
“Miscarriages occur to excess in sibships with neural tube defects (NTDs) and among maternal versus paternal relatives in NTD families. Folic acid prevents most NTDs. Its potential to prevent miscarriages has been controversial.

We evaluated the relationship of maternal line and periconceptional

folic acid with miscarriage.

First cousins in Irish families with NTDs were interviewed about pregnancy outcomes and the health of their offspring.

Miscarriages were not more frequent among pregnancies of maternal versus paternal first cousins. Folic acid intake during early pregnancy significantly reduced the risk LDN-193189 manufacturer of miscarriage from 15.7 to 9.6%, for an adjusted odds ratio of 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.19, 0.72, p = 0.005).

Folic acid during pregnancy was associated with a reduction of approximately 60% in miscarriages. Miscarriages are common-one in every eight pregnancies in this study. If incorporated into pre-pregnancy counseling, these results could have significant public health impact.”
“This study is designed to

examine the chemical composition and GSK2399872A research buy antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Vitex megapotamica. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis resulted in the detection of 27 components, representing 92.36%

of the total oil composition. The main components in the oil were butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (34.17%), phytol (12.66%), -caryophyllene (11.84%), -elemene (10.65%), -caryophyllene (7.82%), -elemene (4.24%) and germacrene D (2.82%). The antioxidant THZ1 activity of the oil was evaluated in terms of their free-radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The oil showed percentage inhibition of 35.62% and 75.25% at concentrations of 76 and 101.6mgmL(1), respectively. BHT (36.30%) was also determined by HPLC-DAD in the hexane fraction from the leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of the species V. megapotamica.”
“Preterm birth can result in adverse outcomes for the neonate and/or his/her family. The accurate prediction and prevention of preterm birth is paramount. This study describes and critically analyses practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth in Ireland.

A questionnaire seeking information on practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth was mailed to all consultant obstetricians practising in Ireland in February 2006.

For predicting preterm birth, 97% of respondents did not use foetal fibronectin testing, 71% carried out routine second and third trimester cervical assessments and 75% routinely screened for genital tract infection.

The results showed that the N-terminal peptide functioned in ER b

The results showed that the N-terminal peptide functioned in ER body targeting, while the C-terminal sequence did not act as a trailer peptide.”
“Purpose This study aimed at definition selleck kinase inhibitor of normal quantitative parameters in intraoperative neuromonitoring during thyroid surgery that may serve as reference range values. Only few and single center studies described quantitative data of intraoperative neuromonitoring. Definition of normal parameters in intraoperative neuromonitoring is believed to be a prerequisite for interpretation of results and intraoperative

findings when using this method. Moreover, these parameters seem important in regard to the prognostic impact of the method on postoperative vocal cord function.

Material and methods In a prospective multicenter study, quantitative analysis of vagal nerve stimulation pre- and postresection was performed in thyroid lobectomies. A standardized protocol determined set up and installation of neuromonitoring and defined assessment of quantitative parameters. Data of intraoperative neuromonitoring were respectively print-documented learn more and centrally


Results In six participating centers a total of 1,289 patients with 1,996 nerves at risk underwent surgery for benign and malignant thyroid disease. Median amplitude was significantly larger for the right vs. left vagal nerve, latency was significantly longer for left vs. right vagal nerve and duration of the left

vs. right vagal nerve significantly longer. Age disparities were only present in form of significantly higher amplitude in patients below 40 years; however, there is no continuous increase with age. Regarding gender, there was significantly higher amplitude and smaller latency in women compared to men. Duration of surgery revealed a reduction of amplitude with operative time; contrarily, latency and signal duration remained stable. The type of underlying thyroid disease showed no influence on quantitative selleck parameters of intraoperative neuromonitoring.

Conclusions Systematic data of multicenter evaluation on quantitative intraoperative neuromonitoring parameters revealed differences between left and right vagal nerves in regard to amplitude, latency and duration of signal, gender, and age. The nature of thyroid disease showed no significant influence on quantitative parameters of intraoperative neuromonitoring. This study presents for the first time collective data of a large series of nerves at risk in a multicenter setting. It seems that definitions of “”normal”" parameters are prerequisite for the interpretation of quantitative changes of intraoperative neuromonitoring during thyroid surgery enabling, interpretation of influence on surgical strategy and prediction of postoperative vocal cord function.

The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas ch

The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

The antioxidant ability was measured using a free radical scavenging activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a deoxyribose assay for the scavenging of hydroxyl radical, an assay for site-specific actions and a 5-lipoxygenase assay. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. 1,8-Cineole, -pinene and camphor were the dominant components of all the essential PF-03084014 oils. The different hydrodistillation times did not affect the oil yield nor the relative amount of the oil components. The time of hydrodistillation influenced the antioxidant activity. With the DPPH method, the oils isolated for 2 and 3 h were stronger free radical scavengers,

while with the TBARS method, the highest antioxidant values were obtained in the oils isolated selleck products for 30 min, 2 and 3 h. Hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipoxygenase activity assays showed the best results with oils isolated for 1 and 3 h. With the deoxyribose method, sage oils at concentrations 1000 mg L-1 showed better activity than mannitol. The essential oil of S. officinalis showed very weak antimicrobial activity.”
“A new alkaloid was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of a termite-associated Streptomyces koyangensis BY-4. The structure of 1 was elucidated by using MS, NMR, electronic circular dichroism data, and computational approaches. Compound 1 showed weak antimicrobial activities against a panel of test microbes.”
“The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of oleocanthal in olive pomace waste and compare this to its concentration in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The concentration of oleocanthal in freshly pressed EVOO and its subsequent waste was

analysed at early, mid and late season harvests. Oleocanthal concentrations were quantified QNZ using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In oil, oleocanthal concentration was as follows: 123.24 +/- 6.48 mg kg-1 in early harvest, 114.20 +/- 17.42 mg kg-1 in mid harvest and 152.22 +/- 10.54 mg kg-1 in late harvest. Its concentration in waste was determined to be: 128.25 +/- 11.33 mg kg-1 in early harvest, 112.15 +/- 1.51 mg kg-1 in mid harvest and 62.35 +/- 8.00 mg kg-1 in late harvest. Overall, olive pomace waste is a valuable source of oleocanthal.”
“Expert Rev. Proteomics 10(2), 127-129 (2013) American Society for Mass Spectrometry Sanibel meeting on top-down mass spectrometry St Pete Beach, FL, USA, 24-27 January 2013 Top-down mass spectrometry involves analysis of intact proteins, typically using electrospray ionization, as multiple charging enhances dissociation and thus identification by comparison of precursor and product ion masses with protein sequence databases.

After the initial post-MI edema subsided, the PIZ decreased by 54

After the initial post-MI edema subsided, the PIZ decreased by 54% from day 10 to day 90 (p = 0.04). The size of infarct scar expanded by 14% and thinned by 56% from day 3 to 12 weeks (p = 0.004 and p < selleckchem 0.001, respectively). LVEDV increased from 34.7 +/- 2.2 ml to 47.8 +/- 3.0 ml (day3 and week12, respectively; p < 0.001). At 30 days post-MI, regional

circumferential strain was increased between the infarct scar and the PIZ (-2.1 +/- 0.6 and -6.8 +/- 0.9, respectively;* p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The PIZ is dynamic and decreases in mass following reperfused MI. Tensile forces in the PIZ undergo changes following MI. Remodeling characteristics of the PIZ may provide mechanistic insights into the development of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death post-MI.”
“The development of incisional hernia after open bariatric surgery is a major cause of morbidity and hospital readmission. The use of prosthetic material in clean-contaminated procedures remains controversial and correlated to high rate of local complications. A prospective

observational clinical study on two different surgical techniques used to close the abdominal wall has been performed to better assess the safety (primary end point) and the efficacy (secondary end point) of polypropylene mesh placement to prevent incisional hernia in morbidly obese patients undergoing biliopancreatic diversion (BPD).

Between January 2007 and February 2009, two consecutive series of 25 BMS 345541 obese patients, each undergoing BPD, have been analyzed to compare prophylactic

retrorectal muscle prosthetic mesh placement with conventional suture repair of the abdominal wall. The first 25 consecutive patients selected to BPD underwent abdominal closure without mesh (group A), and the next 25 consecutive ones have Duvelisib inhibitor been treated with prophylactic retrorectal muscle prosthetic mesh placement (group B).

No mesh infection occurred in patients in group B. The incidence of minor local complications (seroma or hematoma) was similar in both groups. The incidence of incisional hernia was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in no-mesh group (group A) than in the mesh group (group B) at 1-year follow-up (range, 12 to 24 months). The incidence of incisional hernia was 4% (one case reported) in the group treated with mesh versus an incidence of 32% (eight cases reported) in the group conventionally closed.

The mesh placement in clean-contaminated bariatric surgery seems to be safe (primary end point) and effective (secondary end point) at 1-year follow-up.”
“Today, small molecule antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of infections with herpesviruses, HIV, HBV and HCV as well as with influenza viruses. Ribavirin, a broad-spectrum (but aspecific) antiviral, has been approved for the treatment of infections with respiratory syncytial virus, HCV and Lassa virus.

941) CCI, the number of FQs, and GDS and MMSE scores were signif

941). CCI, the number of FQs, and GDS and MMSE scores were significantly correlated with the TIRD at univariate analysis. At multiple regression analysis, the number of FQs was related to the TIRD (coefficient 46.99; SE = 17.04; p = 0.008). Excluding the variable FQ, the GDS was

independently associated with TIRD (coefficient 3.21; SE = 9.26; p = 0.729).

Conclusion: TIRD was independently associated with the number of FQs. When that variable was excluded from the analysis, TIRD was independently associated with the GDS.”
“Objective-To determine time to first detection of Salmonella organisms in feces of animals after experimental infection PO and times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia to evaluate a common method for identifying nosocomial infections on the basis of time of admission and onset of clinical signs (ie, the 3-day click here criterion).


Sample Population-Cattle, horses, goats, and sheep experimentally infected PO with Salmonella enterica

subsp enterica.

Procedures-Online databases were searched for published reports describing results of experimental infection of cattle, horses, learn more goats, and sheep PO with salmonellae. Time to detection of organisms in feces as well as to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia was noted. Analysis of covariance was used to examine relationships among these variables, host species and age, and Salmonella serovar and magnitude of infecting dose.

Results-Forty-three studies met the criteria for inclusion. Time to detection of salmonellae Trichostatin A price in feces ranged from 0.5 to 4 days. Times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia ranged from 0.33 to 11 days and from 0.27 to 5 days, respectively. Time to onset of diarrhea was related to host age and Salmonella serovar. No other associations were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Time to detection of salmonellae in feces is unreliable for identifying hospital-acquired infections; a 3-day criterion will misidentify hospital- versus community-acquired infections. Relying on clinical indices such as times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia to trigger fecal sampling for

detection of Salmonella infection will increase the risk of environmental contamination and nosocomial spread because animals may begin shedding organisms in feces several days prior. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;238:1333-1339)”
“We found hysteresis in Josephson current when sufficiently strong magnetic field H(z) is applied in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane. This is because the magnetic flux is trapped in a superconducting thin film. So, we fabricated the simplified vibrating sample magnetometer, and we have measured the trapped magnetic flux in Nb superconducting thin film by vibrating the sample near the search coil. When a perpendicular magnetic field H(z) was applied to the sample, many vortices were trapped in the perimeter of the sample.

Results: The study on these data sets reveals that RSM can be use

Results: The study on these data sets reveals that RSM can be used successfully to elucidate the important environmental factors influencing the transmission of the disease by analysing short epidemiological time series. The proposed approach has high predictive ability over relatively

long time horizons.

Conclusions: This method promises to provide reliable forecast of malaria incidence across varying environmental conditions, which may help in designing useful control programmes for malaria.”
“The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N)

concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial SB273005 purchase parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration selleck chemical was elevated from 350 to 800 mu l/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO(2)xN interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic

GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the Vorinostat chemical structure bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition.”
“Endoscopic investigation of small bowel pathology in children has historically been difficult due to location, length and tortuosity of the small bowel. Recently, video capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy techniques have evolved as new diagnostic tools and are increasingly used in the paediatric population. In this review the current literature is appraised to define the clinical indications and practical aspects of capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy in children. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

889, P < 0 001 and r = -0 944, P < 0 001, respectively), wh

889, P < 0.001 and r = -0.944, P < 0.001, respectively), while smoking was not related to AMH levels.

Aging significantly decreases AMH levels in women with normal cycles and normal reproductive history, while smoking does not seem to have significant effects on AMH levels.”
“In this

paper, a three dimensional model for the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect in thin film structures is developed using the finite element method (FEM) with a GMI permeability model embedded. One-layer, three-layer, and five-layer thin film structures are simulated. The GMI effect and the sensitivity are calculated as a function of the external magnetic field, driving frequency, and the thickness of the magnetic layers. The results show that the five-layer structure has the best performance, MX69 in vitro which is in accordance with experimental results. The GMI ratio and the sensitivity first improve with the increasing thickness of this website the magnetic layer but reach saturation at a certain value of the thickness. In a five-layer structure, saturation of the GMI effect becomes effective at about

3 mu m thickness of the magnetic layers, where a GMI ratio of 1125% was obtained, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.37%/A/m (29.6%/Oe). (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3556947]“
“Nanoparticles suspended in polymeric host materials are found to have tremendous potential for various photonic and biological applications due to their unique material properties. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is known see more to be one of the best vinyl polymers owing to its excellent dimensional quality, weather resistance, easiness of synthesis, resistance to laser damage, and high mechanical strength. In this article, we describe a methodology to fabricate thin discs of nanocrystalline erbium oxide (Er2O3) suspended in PMMA (Er2O3/PMMA). The optical transparency of PMMA was confirmed in the ultraviolet, visible, and the near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, making it

possible to observe only the Er2O3 spectra over the wavelength investigated. The room-temperature absorption spectrum of Er2O3/PMMA has been taken in the 400 to 820 nm wavelength region. Analysis of the spectrum reveals a consistent agreement between our experimental data and those reported earlier for Er3+ in nanocrystalline Er3+ : Y2O3. A solid solution exists between Er2O3 and Er3+ : Y2O3 in terms of their physical properties. Therefore, our experimental results conclude that the presence of PMMA does not significantly alter the crystal symmetry as well as the co-ordination environment of the Er3+ ions in Er2O3. Our results also emphasize that the Er2O3/PMMA may have future possibilities for numerous technological applications. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.