Therefore, an increasing number of studies address sex-specific p

Therefore, an increasing number of studies address sex-specific problems related to allergy and asthma aetiology CT99021 ic50 [3, 5–7]. Thus, experimental studies should include both sexes to better reflect the human situation. In humans, it is further known that allergy and asthma prevalence in males and females differ depending on age; boys have higher disease prevalence compared with girls, but this is reversed after puberty [3, 8, 9].

It has rarely been considered how age influences the allergic immune response in experimental models. Generally, 6- to 10-week-old mice are used, but an increasing number of studies investigate allergy in younger mice, particularly in relation to prenatal exposure

[10–12]. As allergic diseases and asthma often occur in early childhood, research in developmental immunology requires specific experimental models to mimic this period of life. The effect of sex, to a lesser extent age, and very rarely a combination of these factors, has been addressed in experimental studies of allergy. Therefore, it was the aim of the presented studies to describe sex- and age-related effects on allergy outcomes in two murine models. The age groups were selected to cover an age span that may be used in allergy models. In a first study, we investigated Selleckchem ABT737 how the intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization dose affected allergy outcomes after airway challenges in juveniles, adolescent and fully mature female and male mice. Such i.p. sensitization followed by airway challenges is widely used in experimental research. In a second study, a more realistic route of sensitization was used; female and male mice of the same age groups as used in the previous study were sensitized and challenged by intranasal (i.n.) allergen exposures only. In both models, allergen-specific antibodies in serum, cytokine release from all airway-draining lymph nodes and airway inflammation were used as end

points relevant for experimental allergy. Mice.  Age-matched inbred NIH/OlaHsd female and male mice (Harlan Ltd, Blackthorn, UK) were acclimatized for at least 2 weeks. For the 1-week-old groups, newborn mice were obtained for different experiments either by in-house mating or from time-mated females obtained from the breeder. To avoid litter effects, littermates were marked and allocated to different immunization groups. Offspring were weaned at 3 weeks of age and housed 2–3 mice per cage. Males more than 9 weeks old (or if necessary younger) were housed individually to avoid fighting. Mice were provided tap water and standard laboratory chow ad libitum. The mice were exposed to a 12-h light/dark cycle (30–60 lux in cages), regulated room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) and 40–60% relative humidity.

Although these symbiotic relationships share many common features

Although these symbiotic relationships share many common features at the whole-organism level, the molecular regulation of each

phase of the pathogenic/mutualistic interaction is dependent on both distinct and common pathways and effector Wnt inhibitors clinical trials molecules (Goodrich-Blair & Clarke, 2007). The amenability of these systems to experimental and genetic manipulation coupled with postgenomic approaches will undoubtedly reveal further insight into the regulation of pathogenesis and mutualism in these symbiotic associations (Goodrich-Blair & Clarke, 2007; Herbert & Goodrich-Blair, 2007; Clarke, 2008). The other example of a bacterial–nematode mutualism occurs between the endosymbiont, Wolbachia and members of the Onchocercidae family of filarial nematodes (Table 2), including medically important parasites of humans and animals (Taylor et al., 2010). Members of the genus Wolbachia, an alphaproteobacterial group most closely related to Ehrlichia, Anaplasma and Rickettsia species, are diverse and abundant endosymbionts Selleckchem JNK inhibitor of insects and other arthropods, where they mainly display a parasitic association. Yet in nematodes, the bacterium appears to have

become a mutualist, restricted to a subgroup of the family Onchocercidae (Taylor et al., 2005a). Surveys of nonfilarial nematodes have failed to detect Wolbachia outside of this group (Bordenstein et al., 2003), although some evidence for divergent Wolbachia-like sequences and structurally distinct bacteria has been reported in the plant parasitic Tylenchid nematode, Radopholus

similis (Haegeman et al., 2009). Reports of PCR amplification of Wolbachia sequence from the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Tsai et al., 2007) have not been reproduced and appear to be because of laboratory contamination (Foster et al., 2008). A more in-depth survey of subfamilies of the Onchocercidae supports the view that Wolbachia of arose late in the divergence of filarial nematodes. It is absent from all ancestral groups, and there are examples of the presence or absence of Wolbachia both within nematode genera and species (Ferri et al., 2011). Further evidence of a different tissue tropism and distribution in the more recently acquired Clade F group in Mansonella spp. also suggests a more complex evolutionary history and potentially more diverse symbiotic relationships than previously thought (Ferri et al., 2011). In filarial nematodes that host Wolbachia, most studies have naturally focused on the endosymbiont’s relationship with pathogenic nematode species, Brugia malayi, a lymphatic filarial parasite of humans, Onchocerca volvulus, the cause of human onchocerciasis or ‘river blindness’ and Dirofilaria immitis, the cause of dog heartworm disease (Kozek, 2005; Taylor et al., 2010).

dubliniensis isolates were exposed to sublethal concentrations of

dubliniensis isolates were exposed to sublethal concentrations of nystatin for 1 h. Following this exposure, the drug was removed and PAFE, adhesion to BEC, GT formation and relative CSH were determined by a previously described turbidometric method, adhesion BMN 673 concentration assay, germ tube induction assay and biphasic aqueous-hydrocarbon assay respectively. MIC (μg/ml) of C. dubliniensis isolates to nystatin ranged from 0.09 to 0.78. The nystatin-induced mean PAFE (hours) on C. dubliniensis isolates was 2.17.

Compared with the controls, exposure to nystatin suppressed the ability of C. dubliniensis isolates to adhere BEC, GT formation and relative CSH by a mean percentage reduction of 74.45% (P < 0.0001), 95.92% (P < 0.0001) and 34.81 (P < 0.05) respectively. Hence, brief exposure of C. dubliniensis isolates to nystatin would continue to wield an antifungal effect by suppressing growth as well as its adhesion attributes. Candida dubliniensis is now well recognised as an opportunistic pathogen associated with recurrent oral candidosis in AIDS patients. It has also been

isolated from the oral cavity of diabetic patients and from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients. The fact that C. dubliniensis has been isolated from the upper respiratory tract specimens and from blood suggests that it can disseminate to other sites as well.[1-4] In addition, resistance to fluconazole has been observed in C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from AIDS patients and stable fluconazole resistance Trametinib research buy can be readily induced in C. dubliniensis following exposure to the drug in vitro.[5] Furthermore, a breakthrough in C. dubliniensis fungemia occurred in a patient during prolonged exposure to voriconazole.[6] More recently, it was revealed that longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.[7] Adherence of Candida to host mucosal surfaces is a major determinant of successful microbial colonisation and

subsequent AMP deaminase infection, and its critical role in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis is well recognised. Such attachment enables the organisms to avoid dislodgement due to the cleansing action of mucosal secretions and facilitates infection. Various in vitro and animal studies have provided evidence for a relationship between the proclivity of Candida species to adhere to mucosal surfaces and their presence in infections.[8, 9] Therefore, candidal adherence to human buccal epithelial cells (BEC) is considered as the critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidosis. In addition, germ tubes (GT), which mark the onset of hyphal growth have been implicated in the pathogenesis of candidiasis, as these cylindrical extrusions, unlike the blastospore form, are known to facilitate yeast adherence to epithelial cells and impart resistance to phagocytic killing.

In the absent reference comprehension literature, there is growin

In the absent reference comprehension literature, there is growing evidence that infants’ ability to locate the absent referent depends on various spatial factors. Some of the factors are the accessibility of the hiding location (Ganea, 2005), its proximity to the infant (Ganea & Saylor, 2013; Saylor & Baldwin, 2004) and, most central

to the present discussion, the stability of object location (Huttenlocher, 1974; Saylor & Ganea, 2007). The current study shows that location information may affect infants’ absent reference comprehension indirectly through affecting their object representation. Encountering an object several times across different locations affects infants’ understanding of the object identity, and this impairs their ability to locate the hidden object upon the experimenter’s verbal request. An interesting question Obeticholic Acid for

future research is whether this effect can be extended to other types of referents that are less likely to have duplicates, for example to people or objects that infants know are unique. Another question is whether highly salient features that naturally help infants identify objects can release them from the location RO4929097 molecular weight change effect. Finally, it would be interesting to know when in development such type of location change stops interfering with infants’ performance and to understand what cognitive factors lead to such improvement. Previous research has shown that infants are able to individuate objects based on featural information before 12 months, at 4.5–10 months depending on the procedure (McCurry, Wilcox, & Woods, 2009; Wilcox, 1999; Wilcox & Baillargeon, 1998; Wilcox & Woods, 2009; Xu & Carey, 1996). In the current study, 12-month-old infants were confused about the number of objects when not given consistent spatiotemporal information and when their attention was not deliberately drawn to surface features. Several

aspects of the current study design might have contributed to 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase this. First, the time lag between the two object presentations was much larger (10 min) in this study than in object individuation studies (a few seconds). Second, infants in this research had not only to individuate an object (establish its representation as a distinct solid entity in space), but also to identify it (that is, bind different object features together that define its identity and hold them in memory throughout occlusion for future retrieval). It is known that object identification is a more challenging task than object individuation (Tremoulet et al., 2000). Third, in the current study, infants’ object recognition was assessed in response to a verbal request for the object when it was absent. Presumably this is a more demanding test situation.

96 ± 0 21 The atherosclerotic plaques in the common carotid arte

96 ± 0.21. The atherosclerotic plaques in the common carotid arteries were visualized in 38 patients (80.1%), the mean thickness of the atherosclerotic plaque was 1.61 ± 0.8 mm. We found a significant positive correlation between CAC and CCA-IMT (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). The thickness of atherosclerosis plaque positively correlated with CAC as well as with CCA-IMT (r = 0.60, P < 0.001 and r = 0.7, P < 0.003, respectively). Conclusion:  The study revealed close relationships between CAC, intima media thickness and the thickness of atherosclerotic plaques in dialysis patients. It may indicate that both vascular calcification and atherosclerotic lesions frequently coexist in patients with

ESRD and that the intima media thickness could serve as a surrogate marker of vascular calcification. “
“Low birthweight reflects the congenital find more defects of organs, which is associated with chronic kidney disease through its direct influence on nephron number and function, also through related metabolic disease-induced kidney damage. We reviewed the current evidence regarding the role of low birthweight in the pathogenesis

of chronic kidney disease. Barker put forward the ‘foetal origins hypothesis’ in 1989, that was the higher risk of many chronic disease in adulthood was associated with low birthweight (LBW),1 and the underlying mechanism was the intrauterine reprogramming of certain organs in order for the embryo to survive in a malnutrition condition. LBW as one easily measured index of malnutrition in uterine was used to assess the degree of undergrowth of organs. In 1993, Brenner further adopted the Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor Barker hypothesis to nephrology.2 He speculated that lower nephron number of LBW infants resulted in the higher blood pressure and progressive renal injury in their adulthood. After that, more and more animal experiment and epidemiological studies provided plentiful evidence for the correlation between LBW and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Animal models3 showed that LBW animals have a significantly lower nephron Isoconazole number (decreased by 20–50%). Human studies also revealed the low nephron number in

both infants and adults, approximately a 1 kg increase in birthweight correlated to a 257 000 increase in nephron number.4 The examination of the kidneys of infants who died from non-renal causes showed that the nephron number of LBW infants maintained at a low level even after 1 year of their birth.5 Most human studies and animal experiments showed that the kidney underdevelopment was mainly compensated by the augmentation of nephrons.6,7 In animal experiments, low nephron number was compensated by an increasing single nephron glomerular filtration rate,8 therefore resulting in a higher risk of proteinuria. Human epidemiological studies also confirmed the close correlation between LBW and proteinuria, with every 1 kg decrease of birthweight associated with a 1.

Our results are supported by the findings of Kuroki et al [34] a

Our results are supported by the findings of Kuroki et al. [34] and Klarlund et al. [35], which showed higher short-term NK cell killing of K562 targets in MI patients on days 7 and 28 after coronary artery occlusion compared to the first hospital day, although the total number of NK cells, identified as large granular lymphocytes, was unchanged. Restored granulysin-mediated cytotoxicity at the end of rehabilitation

period could be the consequence of gradual decrease in early post-infarction inflammatory condition during the first month after MI, as it is confirmed with statistically significant lower plasma concentration of CXCL-8, TNF-α, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein when compared with day 7 after MI [36]. In conclusion, this study Decitabine manufacturer demonstrated the increased frequency of GNLY+ peripheral blood lymphocytes within the T, NK and NKT cell subpopulations in patients with NSTEMI treated with anti-ischaemic drugs on day 7 after the acute coronary event, which probably preceded the recruitment of GNLY+ cells in the myocardium, under the influence of IL15. Concomitant with the increased GNLY expression in peripheral blood, increased GNLY-mediated cytotoxicity was seen against K562 cells in vitro, as a model of self-aggression. Additionally, we showed for the first

time the presence of GNLY within CD3+ and CD56+ lymphocytes infiltrating central zone of MI and reaching the apoptotic cells in border MI zones of patients who died Nutlin3 shortly after coronary artery thrombosis, suggesting that GNLY-mediated apoptosis at least partly participate in myocardial cell injury, but also hasten resorption of leucocytes infiltration. The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest. This work was supported by the Special Hospital for the Medical Rehabilitation of Heart and Lung diseases Sorafenib in vitro and Rheumatism Thalassotherapia-Opatija, Opatija, Croatia, and by a grant from the Croatian Ministry of Science No. 062-620402-0377. We thank Mrs. Vera Pavletic, Mr. Josip Laginja and Mrs. Ksenija Tulic for providing technical support. Viktor Persic, Alen Ruzic and Bojan Miletic analysed data and discussed the scientific results; Dijana Travica

Samsa and Marijana Rakic performed experimental work and analysed data Damir Raljevic collected and analysed data; Vesna Pehar Pejcinovic collected data and performed clinical follow-up of the patients; Senija Eminovic collected data and carried out immunohistology studies; Luka Zaputovic and Gordana Laskarin provided theoretical background; Alen Ruzic and Gordana Laskarin discussed the scientific results and wrote the manuscript. “
“GATA-binding protein-3 (GATA-3) regulates the T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine locus through induction of chromatin remodelling. However, the molecular mechanism for this is poorly understood. To understand this mechanism better, we screened GATA-3 interacting proteins using affinity purification and mass spectrometry.

Additionally, the predicted heme/hemoglobin receptors of V splen

Additionally, the predicted heme/hemoglobin receptors of V. splendidus (CAV26466) and V. fischeri (ACH65716) lack the histidine residue corresponding to His-461, whereas the heme receptors of V. parahaemolyticus (BAC62225), V. harveyi (ABU73683), V. anguillarum (HuvA), V. cholerae

(HutA), and V. vulnificus (HupA) possess the corresponding residues (Fig. 4). These data suggest that the mechanism for heme-binding may be somewhat different among different heme/hemoglobin receptors (3). Similarly to other bacterial heme/hemoglobin receptors (38), the manner in which the heme ligand is released from hemoglobin on its cell surface receptor in V. mimicus remains to be clarified. It was found that MhuA shows only 34% identity to V. cholerae VCA0576 (HutA) (Table 2), although MhuB and the partial amino acid sequences deduced from orf1 and orf4, genes in close vicinity to the mhu loucus, show more than HIF-1 activation 85% homology to the corresponding V. cholerae proteins, VCA0575, VCA0574, and VCA0578,

respectively. This learn more implies that the origin of mhuA is different from that of V. cholerae hutA. To further examine the evolutional relationship of the characterized and putative heme/hemoglobin receptors in Vibrio species, we constructed a phylogenetic tree (Fig. 8). The receptors can be classified into two major branches according to the presence or absence of a conserved histidine residue. V. mimicus MhuA forms a clade very distinct from the V. cholerae HutA, although these species are genomically similar to each other (7, 40). MhuB is probably a transcriptional regulator for mhuA belonging to the LysR family. Most LysR regulators repress their own transcription by binding the respective promoter regions, possibly to self-maintain them at their appropriate levels within cells (30, 41). This is consistent with the finding on RT-qPCR that only

very weak transcription of the mhuB gene occurs. Additionally, it has been reported that this type of Methocarbamol regulator usually upregulates transcription of its target genes 6- to 200-fold (29). However, since MhuB activated the mhuA transcription only about 2-fold (1.6-fold in RT-qPCR, and 2.3-fold in β-galactosidase reporter assay), it may be a weak activator of mhuA (31). On the other hand, the fate of heme internalized into the bacterial cytosol is poorly understood. Although some Gram-negative bacteria have been reported to use heme oxygenase-like enzymes (3), no heme oxygenase activity has been identified to date in Vibrio species (23, 38). Wyckoff et al. have reported that the V. cholerae HutZ, which shows no heme oxygenase-like enzyme activity but can bind heme, is required for efficient heme-iron utilization (23). In this context, a more recent article reporting that E.

Although D/P Cr levels at 6 months after the therapy were signifi

Although D/P Cr levels at 6 months after the therapy were significantly lower than those at the initiation of the therapy (0.68 ± 0.10 to 0.62 ± 0.10), D/P Cr levels at 18 months after the therapy were aggravated. Conclusion: It appears that the combination therapy with PD and HD improves Hb levels MK-8669 clinical trial and cardiac function because of adjusting

body fluid status. It was indicated that the peritoneal function at 6 months after the therapy may be improved, but that at over 18 months after the therapy may be aggravated. Therefore, the combination therapy is useful for a lifestyle viewpoint of patients at the transitioned period of PD to HD with end-stage kidney disease. LAI XUELI, CHEN WEI, LI JUAN, BIAN XIAOLU, WANG HAIYAN, GUO ZHIYONG Department of Nephrology, Changhai Hospital

Introduction: It is known that sleep disturbance is associated with quality of life and all cause mortality in end stage renal disease population. However, limited researches focused on biomarkers of daytime sleepiness, especially excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aims to explore the metabolic signatures of EDS cases in PD population. Methods: A cross-sectional study collected fast serum SAHA HDAC molecular weight from no-diabetic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in a single centre from Feb 2013 to June 2013. A validated Chinese version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), self-administered questionnaires for sleep quality evaluation was performed. EDS group was defined as ESS ≥ 9. Meanwhile the PD Kt/V, residual renal function (RRF) and peritoneal equilibration test were recorded. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography

(UPLC) coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry were conducted to explore the metabolic profile in serum sample. After raw data acquisition and transformation by Agilent Masshunter Qualitative Analysis software, Mann-Whitney U Test Protirelin and fold change analysis were performed to find the feature difference. Finally the different metabolites were defined by on-line software. Results: Eighteen (male/female, 10/8; age, 61.4 ± 18.1 years) PD patients with ESS ≥ 9 were assigned into EDS group, while 18 selected gender matched patients (age, 56.9 ± 12.9 years) were defined non-EDS group. Changes of metabolites with significant difference between groups can be classified into three metabolic pathways. They were amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and lipid metabolism. (Table 1). Scores of principal components between groups were illustrated in a 3D PCA plots. (Figure 1). Conclusion: Present study provided potential application of metabonomics in early diagnosis and new insight into mechanism of EDS in peritoneal dialysis patients.

It could be argued that T-lymphocyte

It could be argued that T-lymphocyte Selleckchem Rucaparib activation and hence the priming of potentially autoreactive CD4+ T cells could be impaired in the mixed [B7−/CD11c:DTA>WT ] BM chimeras due to the absence of cDC-derived costimulation. However, as shown in this study and reported by Ohnmacht et al. 14, activation of T cells can occur in the complete absence of cDC. Thus cells other than cDC, i.e. MHC class II+ hematopoietic APC, including plasmacytoid DC 15, B cells and macrophages, as well as nonhematopoietic

MHC class II+ enterocytes seem sufficient to activate T lymphocytes in particular under pathological conditions. Notably, our data do not dispute the role of Treg in the control of autoreactive T-cell immunity, as for instance established by direct Treg ablation strategies 24–26. Rather, they discriminate these systems from the partial Treg impairment induced by cDC deficiencies, which seems to be well

buffered and tolerated by the organism. We believe our finding should spur a general re-evaluation of current classifications of the spontaneous immune disorders observed in mouse models. In the clinic, many diseases, previously labeled “autoimmune” are gradually redefined due to the lack of MHC and autoantibody associations. According to a suggested refined nomenclature 27, autoimmunity should be seen as a result of aberrant B- and T-cell responses in primary and secondary lymphoid organs breaking Venetoclax chemical structure tolerance, with

the development of immune reactivity toward native self-antigens. Adaptive BIBW2992 supplier immune responses play a predominant role in these diseases. In contrast, self-directed inflammation, in which local factors at predisposed sites lead to activation of innate immune cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, resulting in target tissue damage, should be considered autoinflammation. Examples of the latter are the disturbed homeostasis of canonical cytokine cascades (as in periodic fevers 28 and aberrant bacterial sensing or barrier functions (as in Crohn’s disease)). Drastic systemic aberrations, such as the progressive Flt3L-driven myeloid proliferative disorder observed in cDC-less mice 15, likely predispose to site-specific inflammation, which is initially independent of adaptive immune responses. Along these lines, it is noteworthy that neutrophils have been reported to express B-cell activating factor (BAFF) 29 and that mere BAFF overexpression in mice results in a SLE-like syndrome 30. Interestingly and in accordance with the notion that their disorder could have an innate origin, the spontaneous disease manifestations reported for cDC-deficient animals 13, 14 are restricted to the intestine, suggesting the microflora-driven processes that might be amenable to antibiotic treatment.

To directly compare the expression levels in the two cell populat

To directly compare the expression levels in the two cell populations, the mean value of the signal log ratios (log2 FDC/BP3hi) was calculated for the 690 genes. The mean value of log2 FDC/BP3hi=1.4 showed that the signal intensities were 2.6-fold lower on FDC microarray (Fig. 3). It is likely that the lower signals are caused by the presence of B cells in the FDC network. This suggests that the mRNA isolated from the FDC preparations is diluted

by mRNA of co-isolated B cells causing the signal intensity to drop by nearly two-thirds. Out of the 690 genes expressed both in BP3hi stromal cells and in FDC, we defined as differentially expressed only those where the fold differences were significantly different (±1.5-fold change) from the mean value of 2.6. Using these criteria, 46.4% of the 690 genes showed equal expression in BP3hi stromal cells PI3K inhibitor and FDC (Fig. 3), supporting a close lineage relationship between FDC and BP3hi reticular cells. Genes with equal expression included BP3, used as the marker for stromal cells, and also Bgn, Mfge8 or Cxcl12. Staining of splenic tissue sections with Ab specific for the Bgn product biglycan showed that indeed its expression on the protein level is comparable. Similar staining intensities were seen for BP3hi stromal cells of the SCID mouse and for mature FDC (Fig. 4A and B). Genes which were shown to be differentially expressed in mature FDC and BPhi reticular

cells were used to dissect the complex differentiation process of reticular stromal cells. Briefly, 27.0% of the genes expressed in FDC and/or BP3hi reticular cells showed a significantly higher GSK126 nmr Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II expression in mature FDC and these included genes such as Cxcl13, Enpp2, Serpina1, Cilp, Postn, Ltbp3, Coch, Lrat and 9130213B05Rik (Fig. 3). On the other hand, 26.7% of the genes showed a significantly

higher expression in BP3hi stromal cells. These included the chemokines Ccl19 and Ccl21, which in wild-type BALB/c mice are exclusively expressed in reticular cells of the T-cell zone (Fig. 3 and Table 1). In situ hybridization confirmed for Cxcl13, Enpp2, Serpina1, Cilp, Postn, Ltbp3, Coch, Lrat and 9130213B05Rik relatively low or nondetectable expression in the reticular cells of the SCID mouse (Table 1). High expression of these genes is found only in mature FDC. On the other hand, the chemokine CXCL21 was highly expressed in reticular cells of SCID mice and, in contrast to wild-type BALB/c, equal expression was found in CXCL13+ and CXCL13− reticular cells (Fig. 4E and F). Also the gene Tmem176 showed equal expression in both subsets of reticular cells, but unlike Ccl21 no expression of Tmem176 was detectable by in situ hybridization in the spleen of wild-type BALB/c (Fig. 4E and Table 1). These findings, summarized in Table 1, show the complexity of the development of the reticular cell network which supports the lymphoid structures.