The velocity vector imaging measurements were repeated in 10 sub

The velocity vector imaging measurements were repeated in 10 subjects by the same observer and a second observer to determine the intra-observer and then inter-observer correlations. Both of the observers were blinded to subjects data. Statistical analysis The SPSS version 13.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for the statistical analyses. Categorical data were expressed as frequencies. Continuous data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Comparison of continuous variables was performed by paired #HTS keyword# t-test. Comparison of categorical variables was performed

by the chi-square test. Correlation between velocity vector imaging parameters and other data was tested by Spearman correlation coefficients. Linear stepwise regression was performed to assess the adjusted association. Statistical significance was defined as p <0.05. Interclass correlation coefficient was used for evaluation of reproducibility. Results Patient

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical characteristics The basic characteristics of the groups are shown in Table 1. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, BUN and creatinine post kidney transplantation were significantly lower than pre kidney transplantation (p < 0.05). Glucose Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was higher than pre kidney transplantation (p < 0.05). The distribution of cardioactive drugs was not statistically significant different pre- and post kidney transplantation. The noted change were that only two patients were on erythropoiesis stimulating agent after transplantation, compared with 52% of those before transplantation and all the patients were on immueosuppressive agents after transplantation. There was no significant difference in hemoglobin pre and post kidney transplantation (p > 0.05). Table 1 Comparison of clinical data pre and post kidney transplantation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Conventional echocardiography LVEF, ratio of mitral early and late diastolic filling velocity, and LV rotation, twist and torsion were increased significantly post kidney transplantation compared to pre

kidney transplantation (p Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical < 0.05) (Table 2). Interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were decreased significantly post kidney transplantation compared to pre kidney transplantation (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference pre and post kidney transplantation in RWtd (p > 0.05) (Table 2). Based on data in Table 2, LV displayed concentric hypertrophy Drug_discovery pre and post kidney transplantation in end stage renal disease. Table 2 Anatomical and functional indexes of left ventricle pre and post kidney transplantation Velocity vector imaging Post kidney transplantation peak rotation of apical LV (ROT-API), peak rotation of basal LV (ROT-BAS), peak twist (TW) and peak torsion of LV (TOR) were significantly higher than pre kidney transplantation (p < 0.05) (Fig. 1, Table 2). There was no significant difference between absolute value of ROT-BAS and ROT-API (p > 0.05).

Responders to treatment (at least 50% improvement, on MRS) were 5

Responders to treatment (at least 50% improvement, on MRS) were 50% of the ziprasidone group and 35% of the placebo group (P<0.05). Another 3-week

trial was newly positive for ziprasidone. Somnolence and extrapyramidal, symptoms were the most reported adverse events.73 A third monotherapy placebo-controlled trial also had a haloperidol arm, and showed significant superiority over placebo but lower efficacy versus haloperidol (up to 30 mg/day) at the 3-week and 12-week end points.52,74 Two hundred and five bipolar patients receiving lithium were part of a double -blind trial that studied ziprasidone as add-on treatment over 3 weeks. This trial failed to yield positive results. Somnolence, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical extrapyramidal symptoms, dizziness, and agitation were more frequent in the group Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical receiving ziprasidone and lithium.75 Another potential side effect, of the drug is activation (some sort

of akathisia vs anxiety and restlessness). Further add-on controlled trials are currently ongoing with ziprasidone. Aripiprazole Aripiprazolc is a partial agonist Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of dopamine D2/D3and serotonin (5-HT)1Areceptors and an antagonist of 5-HT2Aand histamine H1receptors, and a moderate serotonin reuptake inhibitor. This agent demonstrated a superior response rate to haloperidol (50% vs 28.4%) in patients remaining on treatment in a 12-week comparative trial.76 Two hundred and sixty -two patients with an acute manic or mixed episode were randomized either to aripiprazole or placebo. They were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hospitalized at least for 2 weeks and followed for an extra week. Aripiprazole significantly improved YMRS scores (-8.2 vs -3.4 for placebo; P<0.01) Response rate was significantly Dorsomorphin price higher too (40% versus 19%; P<0.01) The percentage of aripiprazole-treated patients achieving response was significantly higher than that of placebo-treated patients as early as day 4 (14% vs 5%; P<0.05) This was confirmed by a second 3-wcek

study. Akathisia was significantly higher with aripiprazole when compared with placebo.77,78 Another trial randomized manic patients to aripiprazole Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (n=175) or haloperidol (n=172). GSK-3 After 12 weeks, 50.9% of aripiprazole-treated patients and 29.1% of the haloperidol group responded to treatment. Greater tolerability for aripiprazole should be considered when discussing these data,51 because the definition of response included the capacity to stay in the trial until its end. There is only one very recent placebo-controlled trial with aripiprazole as adjunctive treatment of mood stabilizers, which showed better efficacy for the combination.79 Activation and akathisia have been reported with aripiprazole. Amisulpride Only one controlled trial is available for this drug in mania. A multicenter, open, randomized trial compared amisulpride with haloperidol in manic patients taking valproate.80 Amisulpride was not significantly superior to haloperidol, but.

35 One disadvantage is that if patients require total

35 One disadvantage is that if patients require total laryngectomy with flap reconstruction in the future, selleck kinase inhibitor obtaining suitable recipient vessels for anastomosis may be more problematic. Salvage Surgery Clinically evident nodal metastases at the time of recurrence require surgical extirpation simultaneous with laryngectomy. The treatment of cases with local recurrence of laryngeal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cancer but without clinically evident

nodal metastases is more controversial. Traditionally, many authors have recommended elective dissection of the N0 neck, particularly with supraglottic cancers, in which case bilateral neck dissection was commonly required.76,77 However, the wider availability of better preoperative imaging has allowed other authors to challenge the need for elective neck dissection in the salvage setting, particularly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical among patients who were staged N0 before initial treatment.78,79 The reported incidence of positive nodes in patients undergoing elective neck dissection at the time of salvage laryngectomy ranges Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from 3% to

19%.45,76,77,79–82 Possible reasons for the wide range include differences in study inclusion criteria, and differences in preoperative imaging studies used to stage the neck at the time of recurrence. In our institution, we found an incidence of occult neck disease of 8% (5% of dissected heminecks) among patients with clinically rN0 necks which had been staged small molecule radiologically with preoperative CT scan.78 Bilateral neck dissection at the time of salvage laryngectomy has been reported to lead to a higher incidence of major complications including pharyngocutaneous fistula.45,78,80 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Furthermore, elective neck

dissection in this group does not appear to confer any survival benefit.56,80,81 Therefore avoidance of neck dissection if feasible may be beneficial by reducing the morbidity and risk of complications of salvage laryngectomy. Outcomes of Treatment Five-year overall survival rates for patients with advanced Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical larynx cancer range from 48% to 54%.32,43,44 For the most part, this does not appear to be affected by GSK-3 choice of treatment, with the increased local recurrence rate seen in non-surgically treated patients offset by the ability of many of these patients to be salvaged by total laryngectomy at the time of recurrence. This would appear to lead to equal overall survival between surgically and non-surgically treated patients, but a higher rate of larynx preservation in the non-surgical group.14,43,44 However, with the increasing shift toward non-surgical treatment strategies, there are worrying recent reports regarding a decreased survival for larynx cancer.17 It has been suggested that this may be linked to less aggressive surgical treatment of the larynx and/or neck. Hoffman et al.

g , smoking with changes to brain volume) may be unidirectional,

g., smoking with changes to brain volume) may be unidirectional, bidirectional, or mediated by other shared factors. In addition, there currently exists a paucity of research assessing a particular pathway in concert with smoking and anxiety. Few prospective data are available assessing the impact of changes to specific systems on anxiety symptoms in response to cigarette smoking. In addition, aside from Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the inherent difficulties

in translating animal model data to humans, many of the above associations displayed variability in results depending upon study variables, including animal model used or experimental design. In addition, much of the literature has focused solely on the role of nicotine and not the other known toxic ingredients of cigarette smoke including free radicals Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and metals. There was also significant variability in expression and function of these systems between different groups (e.g., men vs. women) and individuals within these groups, and hence

much further work is required to ascertain how these influences draw together. Understanding reasons underpinning differential expression between groups may help clarify further key elements to anxiety development. Women, for example, are known to exhibit higher rates of anxiety disorders, which likely relates to a combination of biological (e.g., different hormonal compositions) and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical psychological factors, and hence further analysis of these effects on the described pathways may prove enlightening. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The acute and long-term effects of any agent that causes a robust homeostatic adaptation are often quite different; this needs to be taken into account in interpretation of acute data, and in extrapolating to management strategies. Future research efforts in this area should attempt to address some of these Paclitaxel challenges. First, it would be useful to ascertain the effects of nicotine versus other cigarette constituents to the above pathways in humans.

The use of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical populations with high consumption of Snus, such as Norway, presents as opportunity for such analyses to be conducted prospectively, and combined with follow-up behavioral assessments, serum analysis of relevant markers (e.g., inflammatory or O&NS), assessment of genetic function, and functional and structural imaging. Such studies could be extended over time to investigate specific changes between different anxiety disorders (e.g., Drug_discovery PD, GAD, PTSD), different subsets of the promotion info population (e.g., cultural or gender groups), and in individuals with other risk elements known to influence these similar pathways (e.g., history of childhood trauma, comorbid medical illness). It is likely that interindividual differences in genetics and epigenetic alterations will also complicate these effects, and as such further exploration of this evolving area will be of foremost importance.

Most tortuosity will straighten adequately for

Most tortuosity will straighten adequately for sheath insertion once a stiff wire is placed, but extreme tortuosity should be selleck chem Carfilzomib avoided as it may lead to sheath kinking and an inability to deliver the device. Two special circumstances deserve mention. The first is previously placed Dacron grafts in the aortoiliac position. These may prove problematic to cross with large sheaths as they can accordion and bind the sheaths. While they may be used, the size, path, and any redundancy of the graft should be considered. Second, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can pose a hazard in crossing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and device insertion if the sheath ends within

the aneurysm itself. If the iliofemoral route is to be used with an AAA, it is important to choose a sheath with enough length to extend above the AAA so that all device changes occur outside Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of and not sellckchem within the AAA. At the Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center (MDHVC), our approach

is to always use the iliofemoral route when possible. Vascular complications are common with TAVR and can increase early and late mortality, and they are best avoided by careful screening and choosing a non-iliofemoral approach in questionable cases. This manuscript discusses our approach to TAVR access, closure, and complications that can occur. Femoral Access Femoral access is the preferred placement methodology when possible, and we have discussed our requirements in considering Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this approach above. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical We generally access both femoral arteries for femoral access TAVR — one femoral artery is for placement of the 18-Fr sheath, and the other is for placement of a 5-Fr graduated pigtail catheter through a 6-Fr sheath into the noncoronary sinus as a marker for valve placement and to allow arteriography during placement for positioning. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical We occasionally use access from the arm for this. The nondevice sheath femoral artery is punctured first using a micro puncture needle, and a 6-Fr sheath is placed after fluoroscopic confirmation of appropriate wire position from the micro

puncture needle. A contra or a LIMA catheter and a 0.035-mm glide wire are used to access the opposite iliofemoral system and then place a 0.018-mm safety wire. The safety wire allows access contralateral to AV-951 the iliofemoral system on the sheath side if injury is noted during sheath insertion or removal. The sheath side may be accessed by direct surgical cut down or percutaneously, which is our preferred approach when appropriate. For the percutaneous approach we use fluoroscopy and the safety wire to guide puncture of the common femoral artery and placement of a 6-Fr sheath. A soft, J-tipped 0.035-mm wire is placed into the descending thoracic aorta (DTA), and two ProGlide closure devices are used to “pre-close” the puncture site. The soft J-tipped wire and an exchange catheter are inserted into the DTA. The soft wire is exchanged for a super-stiff Amplatz wire, and the catheter and 6-Fr sheath are removed.

If, however, we assume that Muslims do not adhere to fatawa, then

If, however, we assume that Muslims do not adhere to fatawa, then our conclusion is that the religious prohibition

expressed by the fatawa in their fatawa is not strong enough to resist the financial need of the poor. In this case, penal and social state legislations should be put into action. Footnotes Conflict of interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
Organ this website transplantation has a key role in medicine worldwide and has become an essential treatment modality in saving and prolonging lives in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Kidney, heart, liver, lung, and pancreas are among the vital organs that are routinely used for transplantation, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but many other organs that draw less public attention such as small bowel, skin, ligaments, bones, and cornea are used in various clinical conditions to provide temporary or permanent relief for various clinical conditions. In general, organ transplantation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical saves lives, prolongs survival, and increases the quality of life. Kidney transplantation has been proven to have a survival advantage over hemodialysis, accompanied by a marked increase Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the quality of life. In general, organ implantation is co-ordinated

via regional or national allocation programs, which set up the priorities for organ allocation and provide the essential logistics and laboratory support for the transplantation process.1,2 These organs can be preserved for a relatively short period of time, and therefore mechanisms for immediate organ allocation, once a donor is identified, are critical. Organ transplantation is one of the most complex procedures in medicine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for several reasons. First and foremost, it involves dealing with the

medical aspects of the recipient patient in parallel to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dealing with a matched donor in case of a living donor or his family for a deceased donor. Whether involving a deceased or a living donor, the ethical rules that wrap the process of organ transplantation are complex and often convoluted by ethical and religious nuances. Ethical issues Dacomitinib with the timely and unequivocal definition of death are among the most debatable and complex dilemmas in medicine,3–5 and the public opinion is often skewed by religious and following website cultural influences and ethical standards that vary between different cultures and religions. On top of that, the field of transplantations is faced with a worldwide shortage of organs,6,7 and this mandates the need to guard the ethical standard of medical priorities for those patients that depend on the transplantation to save their lives. In this review, I will discuss the major dilemmas that we face in Israel and worldwide regarding organ transplantation. SHORTAGE OF ORGANS The shortage of organs is a major problem worldwide.6,7 There are many more patients awaiting transplantation than there are organ donors.

Thus, the sarcolemmal localization of nNOS through expression of

Thus, the sarcolemmal localization of nNOS through expression of α1-syntrophin is not indispensable for vasodilation. However, how dystrophin or other molecules transduce mechanostress to soluble nNOS is unresolved (6). The defective vasodilation under shear stress due to nNOS deficiency in mdx mice might be related to its muscle selleck chemical FTY720 degradation (14). It is very interesting to note the amelioration of dystrophic sellckchem phenotypes in nNOS transgenic mdx mice, although

the localization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of nNOS cannot have been improved (30). Decreased vasodilation just after muscle contraction has also been demonstrated in mdx skeletal muscle (31). Leinonen et al. found that capillary circulation in skeletal muscle was impaired in DMD (32), and deteriorated attenuation of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical during exercise may participate in this pathophysiology (7). Moreover, blood flow must be increased to accommodate the augmented metabolic demands of the muscle, not only in exercise. Intramuscular arterioles in mdx mice cannot afford to respond to the increased demands, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and their failure may result in relative ischemia in the skeletal muscle and cardiac phenotypes of dystrophin deficiency. Asai et al. very recently showed that the functional ischemia in contraction-induced myofibers in mdx mice is due to nNOS deficiency and indicated that vasoactive drugs may ameliorate muscle damage (33). Even in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle, cholinergic vascular modulation was well preserved. Therefore, our study indicates that pharmacological Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatment using a

vasoactive agent is applicable to at least skeletal muscle symptoms in patients suffering from DMD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that vasodilation of intramuscular arterioles under shear stress was impaired in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. This impairment may be related to phenotypes of DMD, not only in skeletal muscle but also in cardiac muscle. Acknowledgments This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid from the Human Frontier Science Program, Scientific Research for Center Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of Excellence, Research on Nervous and Mental Disorders (10B-1, 13B-1), Health Science Research Grants for Research on the Human Genome and Gene Therapy (H10-genome-015, H13-genome-001) and for Research on Brain Science (H12-brain-028) from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (10557065, AV-951 11470153, 11170264, 14657158, and 15390281) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology for Japan, and a Research Grant from the Human Frontier Science Project. This work was also carried out as a part of the “Ground-based Research Announcement for Space Utilization” promoted by the Japan Space Forum. T. Yokota is a Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

More than ever, TURP is being challenged by HoLEP and PVP, which

More than ever, TURP is being challenged by HoLEP and PVP, which both represent valid clinical alternatives. Current evidence supports the conclusion that HoLEP offers favorable and durable outcomes for any prostate size with low early and late morbidity. PVP has achieved a higher level of acceptance, although long-term animal study results from high-quality studies are awaited.6 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Main Points Evidence suggests that holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and photoselective laser vaporization of the prostate (PVP) have the potential to become valid alternatives to both open prostatectomy (OP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP),

and currently dominate the arena of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

laser treatment. HoLEP represents the endourological alternative to OP and is the most technically advanced form of laser prostate surgery. Despite its benefits, the procedure has been slow to gain widespread acceptance. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical HoLEP is at least as effective as TURP and, despite no statistically Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical significant differences in overall morbidity, complications are less frequent after HoLEP compared with TURP. PVP represents one of the most promising new technologies for the treatment of BPH. Laser energy is directed toward prostatic tissue using a 70°; 600 μm side-firing probe. Under direct vision, vaporization is performed with a fiber-sweeping technique, starting at the bladder neck and continuing with the lateral lobes and the apex. The prostate gland is vaporized from the inside Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to its outer layers. Current evidence supports that HoLEP offers favorable and durable outcomes for any prostate size

with low early and late morbidity. PVP has achieved a higher level of acceptance, although long-term results from high-quality studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are awaited. Footnotes All authors read and approved the final draft. There is no financial or commercial interest for this article, and the work had no specific funding. The authors have no real or apparent conflicts of interest to report.
Despite the use of culture-specific or broadspectrum antibiotic therapy prior to surgical removal of upper tract nephrolithiasis, certain patients still develop postoperative Batimastat sepsis. Some have reported that preoperative voided urine cultures from these patients may not be reflective of the bacterial environment within the stone that is to be treated.1 Bioactive compound Manipulating the stone during attempts at removal and fragmentation may liberate these organisms into the bloodstream, heightening the risk of sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Thus, prescribing antimicrobial therapy that will eradicate the organism in the urine and provide broad-spectrum coverage for the potentially different bacteria harbored within the stone is desired.

27-29 These treatments have been tested with children 30-34 and a

27-29 These treatments have been tested with children.30-34 and adults10,22,35 and have included interventions for inpatients,36 refugees,17 couples,37 parents,35 and those bereaved by war,38 natural disasters,39 accidents,23 suicide,40 and violence.41 #find more randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# MLN8237 Relatively few of these interventions have targeted

complicated grief (CG) symptoms specifically rather than depression and distress more generally. Three review articles have described the literature on these CG-specific interventions.42-41 The most recent, a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials, found a pooled standard mean difference (a measure of effect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical size) of -0.53 (95% CI: -1.00 to -0.07) favoring interventions targeting complicated grief relative to supportive counseling, IPT, or wait list.43 The four interventions that were more efficacious than the comparison condition were all based, at least in part, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on cognitive-behavioral principles. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 14,24,45 An interpretive intervention focused on increasing clients* insight about conflict and trauma related to their loss was not efficacious.46,47 The effects of the CG interventions appeared to grow larger at follow-up, although long-term data were only available from a single

study.14 One form of complicated grief therapy (CGT) with strong empirical support has roots in both IPT and CBT45 CGT is based on attachment theory, which holds that humans are biologically programmed to seek, form, and maintain close relationships. Attachment figures are people with whom proximity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is sought and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical separation resisted; they provide a ”safe haven“ of support and reassurance under stress and a ”secure base“ of support for autonomy and competence that facilitates exploration of the world. In acute

grief following the loss of an attachment figure, the attachment system is disrupted, often leading Anacetrapib to a sense of disbelief, painful emotions, intrusive thoughts of the deceased individual, and inhibition of the exploratory system.48 With successful mourning, the individual moves from a state of acute grief to integrated grief in which the finality of the loss is acknowledged, the trauma of the loss is resolved, emotions become more positive or bittersweet, the mental representation is revised to encompass the death of the attachment figure, and the exploratory system is reactivated, with life goals revised to integrate the consequences of the loss. This occurs through a ”dual-process model,“ with both loss- and restoration-focused activities.

2 One approach to dissecting this

2 One approach to dissecting this disease process involves focusing on a well-defined clinical component of the illness. For example,

deficits in cognitive abilities are thought to be the core features of schizophrenia because they occur with high frequency in individuals with schizophrenia, are relatively stable over the course of the illness, are independent of the psychotic symptoms of the disorder, are present in a milder form in individuals at genetic risk who do not become clinically ill,3 and are the best predictor of long-term functional outcome.4 Of the domains of cognition affected Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in schizophrenia, disturbances in working memory, the ability to transiently maintain and manipulate a limited amount of since information in order to guide thought or behavior, are accompanied by altered ARQ197 Sigma activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (DLPFC, Figure 1 A, B). The altered activation

of the DLPFC under such conditions might be specific to the disease process of schizophrenia because these disturbances Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are present in medication-naïve individuals with schizophrenia, but not in subjects with other psychotic disorders or major depression.5,6 Figure 1 A) Photograph of an unstained coronal block, containing the prefrontal cortex, cut immediately anterior to the corpus callosum through the left hemisphere of a postmortem human brain. This block also includes the adjacent anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) … This review examines alterations in components of excitatory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and inhibitory neurotransmission in DLPFC circuitry that might contribute to the impairments in working memory in

schizophrenia. Each mediator is considered from the perspective of which alterations reflect the disease process and which might be neuroplastic responses of the affected circuits. Although additional studies are required, existing data suggests that many of the alterations described below are probably also present in other cortical regions that are dysfunctional in schizophrenia.7 Neuroplasticity of excitatory cortical connections in schizophrenia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Excitatory connections in the DLPFC are altered in schizophrenia The disease process of schizophrenia appears to involve deficient glutamate -mediated excitatory neurotransmission through the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor.8,9 NMDA receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) Anacetrapib or ketamine increase both positive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, and the administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine to healthy individuals produces thought disorder and other features similar to those seen in schizophrenia.10 In addition, systemic administration of NMDA receptor antagonists disrupts working memory in rats,11 and application of an NMDA receptor antagonist to the DLPFC impairs working memory performance in monkeys.