Animals were treated with equivalent doses of DOX (3 mg/kg) and N

Animals were treated with equivalent doses of DOX (3 mg/kg) and NChitosan-DMNPs suspended in PBS by intravenous injection every 2 days for 12 days. At predetermined time periods, the length

of the minor axis (2a) and major axis (2b) of each tumor was measured using a caliper. Each tumor volume was then calculated using the formula for ellipsoid QNZ ic50 [(4/3)π × a2b]. MR imaging In vivo MR imaging experiments were performed using a 3.0 T clinical MRI instrument with a micro-47 surface coil (Intera; Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). The T2 weights of nude mice injected with nanoparticles were measured by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence at room temperature with the following parameters: TR = 10 s, echoes = 32 with 12 ms even echo space, number of acquisitions = 1, point resolution = 156 × 156 μm, and section thickness = 0.6 mm. For T2-weighted MR imaging in the nude mouse model, the following parameters were adopted: resolution = 234 × 234 μm2, section thickness = 2.0 mm, TE = 60 ms, TR = 4,000 ms, and number of acquisitions = 1. Results and discussion Characterization selleck chemicals of N-naphthyl-O-dimethymaleoyl chitosan

N-naphthyl-O-dimethymaleoyl chitosan was synthesized by modifying chitosan with naphthyl groups at amino groups to complement their solubility and introduce amphiphilic properties [79]. Chitosan was reacted with naphthaldehyde to obtain an imine (Schiff base), which is easily converted into an N-naphthyl derivate by

reduction with sodium borohydride or sodium cyanoborohydride (Figure 2a). Afterward, N-NapCS was introduced into the hydroxyl groups of chitosan by maleoylation with dimethylmaleic anhydride in DMF/DMSO to obtain N-nap-O-MalCS (Figure 2b) [67, 68]. This synthetic compound was characterized by a 1H-NMR spectrum, and satisfactory analysis data were obtained (Figure 3). N-nap-O-MalCS was used to form nanopolymeric micelles by dialysis in various MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit pH solutions. They were less than 200 nm at pH 7.2 to 8.0 but rapidly increased in size as the acidity of solution increased (Figure 4). Their sizes could not be measured at pH 5.5 and 6.0 (Figure 4a) due to aggregation. This was a result of the weakened solubility of N-nap-O-MalCS in the aqueous phase caused by acid hydrolysis of its maleoyl groups [80, 81]. This phenomenon accelerated at 37°C compared to 25°C (Figure 4b). N-Nap-O-MalCS has a potential as a drug carrier because it can self-assemble with pH-sensitive behavior [67, 68, 79, 82]. Figure 3 1 H-NMR spectrum of N -nap- O -MalCS. (a) -CH- in aromatic ring. (b) -CH2-. (c) -CH. (d) -CH3. Figure 4 Effect of N -nap- O -MalCS polymeric micelles in various pH conditions and temperatures. (a) Stability. (b) Particle size.

Following this, 200-ps constant mole, pressure, and temperature (

Following this, 200-ps constant mole, pressure, and temperature (NPT) runs were conducted at the same temperature and zero pressure in three directions using the Nosé-Hoover thermostat and barostat [30, 31]. The bulk systems were subsequently cooled down to 50 K at a rate of 4.75 K/ps with zero external pressure under NPT ensemble. After a short NPT run for 50 ps at 50 K, the systems are heated to 600 K with a rate of 1.1 K/ps, and the density of the bulk systems were monitored during the heating process. The systems were subsequently cooled down from 600 to

200 K at a rate of 2 K/ps. Finally, two steps of relaxation were performed under buy AZD0530 NPT and NVT ensembles with 100 ps each to obtain samples for mechanical load simulations. These MD models are henceforth referred to as the bulk MD models. Figure 1 Unit molecular network structure and schematic depiction of PE particles. (a) Unit molecular network structure of polyethylene (PE). A networked

molecule C2200 is decomposed into branched and linear molecules via bond breaking at cross-linking selleck chemicals llc points. The number of united atoms in each linear segment is indicated. The beads at the ends of as-generated branched and linear molecules are hence re-defined (from CH to CH3 bead). (b) Schematic depiction of the preparation of ultrafine nanoscale PE particles. PE molecules are packed into a spherical why shape via shrinking under hydrostatic pressure. The as-generated nanoparticle is able to maintain the spherical shape under full relaxation. Each simulated bulk or particle system consists of 66,000 beads in total. Coloring of beads is based on the molecule number. MD models of PE nanoparticles were constructed as shown in Figure 1b. The periodic boundary conditions of the bulk MD models were removed in all directions, and a spherical wall was introduced to encircle all the beads. The beads falling outside the circle will be dragged into the circle. The spherical wall was able to exert a force onto each atom with the ALK inhibitor magnitude defined by: (2) where K is a specified force constant which is given

to 5.0 kcal/(moleÅ2), r is the distance from the bead to the center of the sphere, and R is the radius of the sphere. The negative magnitude of the force in Equation 2 indicates that the force acts towards the center of the sphere. Therefore, higher pulling forces are applied to beads far away from the edge of the sphere. The radius of the sphere was reduced to densify the polymer as described by: (3) where R and R 0 are the instantaneous and initial radius of the spherical wall, respectively, S is a positive constant, and n has progressive values of positive integers corresponding to elapsed time of the simulation (i.e., n = 1, 2, 3, …). For the simulations described herein, S was 0.99 and n increased by a value of 1 for every 5 ps of simulation time.

0–)6 5–10 5(−14 0) μm long, (2 2–)3 0–3 5(−4 5) μm at the widest

0–)6.5–10.5(−14.0) μm long, (2.2–)3.0–3.5(−4.5) μm at the widest point, base (1.0–)2.2–3.2 μm wide, L/W (1.5–)1.6–3.2(−5.5) (n = 120), arising from a cell (1.7–)2.2–3.5(−4.5) μm wide. Conidia subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal, (2.2–)2.7–4.0(−4.5) × (1.7–)2.5–3.5(−4.0) click here μm, L/W (0.9–)1.0–1.4(−1.6) (n = 120; 95% ci: 3.3–3.5 × 2.9–3.0 μm, L/W 1.1–1.2), green, roughened, less frequently smooth. Chlamydospores not

observed. Etymology:’capillare’ refers to the fine hairs arising from the conidial pustules. Habitat: soil; isolated once from an Agaricus farm (Hungary). Known distribution: USA (NY), Colombia, Europe (Austria, Hungary), Vietnam, Taiwan (C.P.K. 3412; morphology not assessed). Holotype: Trametinib Hungary, from Agaricus farm in cellar, C.P.K. 2883 (BPI 882292, live ex-type culture G.J.S. 10–170 = CBS 130629. Sequences: tef1 = JN182283, cal1 = JN182293, chi18-5 = JN182304, rpb2 = JN182312). Additional cultures examined:

Austria, Niederösterreich, Mannswörth, soil under Salix sp.; C.P.K. 885 = MA 3642 = G.J.S. 10–169. Sequences: tef1 = JN182277, cal1 = JN182289, chi18-5 = JN182303. USA. New York, Ontario County, Cornell Vegetable Farms, soil, ATCC 20898 = CBS 130672 = G.J.S. 99–3. Sequences: tef1 = JN175584, cal1 = JN175411, chi18-5 = JN175470, rpb2 = JN175529. Vietnam, soil, Le Dinh Don, PSI-7977 datasheet CBS 130500 = G.J.S. 06–66. Sequences: tef1 = JN175585, chi18-5 = JN175471, rpb2 = JN175530. Comments: The ex-type strain of this species was reported by Hatvani et al. (2007). Strain ATCC 20898, isolated from soil in New York State, is highly unusual in producing white conidia in pustules that very slowly turn green. It was cited by Smith et al., as T. viride, for biological control of Phytophthora Montelukast Sodium spp. (U.S. Patent 4196557, 26 Feb 1991). This species was cited by Wuczkowski et al. 2003 (as MA 3642, Trichoderma sp.). The subglobose, roughened conidia and often irregular branching pattern characterize this species. Hoyos-Carvajal et al. (2009) isolated this species from

soil in Colombia (Guajira, San Juan). There are no obvious close relatives for this species in the Longibrachiatum Clade (Druzhinina et al. 2012). Trichoderma capillare is unusual in the Longibrachiatum Clade for its branching pattern, which tends to be more random than in T. longibrachiatum, the frequent arrangement of phialides in divergent whorls, and for the roughened and broadly ellipsoidal to subglobose conidia. It differs from the somewhat distantly related T. saturnisporum in which conidia are ellipsoidal and tuberculate, the ornamentation typically appearing as blisters (Samuels et al. 1998). 4. Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Can. J. Bot. 62: 926 (1984). Teleomorph: Hypocrea schweinitzii (Fr.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 522 (1883). Ex-type culture: DAOM 172792 = CBS 258.85 Typical sequences: ITS Z31017, tef1 EU280036 Bissett (1991c) distinguished between T.

2), the non-relaxed fraction of quantum yield after 30 min in dar

2), the non-relaxed fraction of quantum yield after 30 min in dark (q i) was 0.30 ± 0.04 in the sun leaves and 0.39 ± 0.07 in the shade leaves. Increase

of relative variable fluorescence at 2 ms (V J) indicates stronger limitation of PI3K inhibitor electron transport from QA to QB as shown also numerically by the values of probability (ψET2o) of trapped PSII electron transfer from reduced QA to QB (Table 4). The variable Chl fluorescence increase from I to P represents the measure of electron transport from QB beyond PSI (Munday and Govindjee 1969; Schansker et al. 2003). As is evident by the values of the probability with which the electron moves toward check details PSI end acceptors, ψRE1o, the electron transport between PSII and PSI after HL treatment becomes BAY 11-7082 chemical structure less limited (Table 4), especially in shade leaves. (For a detailed discussion on the interpretation of the J–I–P rise (the so-called thermal phase of fast ChlF kinetics), see a review by Stirbet and Govindjee 2012). Another explanation for the above results is that HL treatment affects the post-illumination redox state of the PQ pool, and the activation state of the PS I acceptor side (e.g., due to FNR activity) probably does not decay within the 30-min dark period that was used before the measurements. Stromal

components can donate electrons to the PQ pool in the dark. Reduction in the dark can be substantially stimulated by pre-illumination with strong light (Asada et al. 1992). An increase of PQ-pool reduction with respect to the control will induce an increase of the J-step (Toth et al. 2007) and, hence, of all the parameters based on the values of V J. This

is also supported by increased values of F 0 in samples 30 min after HL treatment. The changes of connectivity parameters (p 2G, p, ω) after HL treatment were mostly insignificant (Table 4); moreover, according to Laisk and Oja (2013), estimates of p parameter can be strongly influenced by the redox status of the PQ pool. Since F 0 value may increase in samples after HL treatment, calculated values of connectivity parameters may not be used as a measure of true PSII connectivity. Nevertheless, the insignificant differences between the F 0 values 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase before and after HL treatment and the maintained significance of differences between the sun and shade leaves suggest that the estimate of connectivity parameters could not be as prone to errors due to PQ redox status as expected. The membrane model parameters (Table 4) show energy flux parameters per active RC. A higher value of the inferred absorbance per RC (ABS/RC) in shade leaves before HL treatment (~2.6) as compared to the sun leaves (~2.2) seems to indicate increased antenna size per active RC (Strasser et al. 2000; Stirbet and Govindjee 2011). However, a correction for connectivity (Suppl. Table 2; see information given in parentheses), i.e., multiplying the ABS/RC by 1 + C where C is the curvature constant of the relative variable fluorescence curve (Force et al.

OLL2809 was isolated from human feces [22] The beneficial activi

OLL2809 was isolated from human feces [22]. The beneficial activity of this strain on mucosal inflammation has been previously shown in mice, where administration of OLL2809 was effective in reducing endometriotic lesions [30]. L13-Ia was isolated from raw whole bovine milk and was considered a potential probiotic strain [23] as it survived a selective in vitro digestion protocol. Another probiotic property of these strains has been confirmed in this study (Table 1).

The intestinal microbiota interacts with the local immune system promoting mechanisms of intestinal homeostasis [31]. Harnessing the contribution of probiotics to this physiological function has been proposed as a potential beneficial treatment for inflammatory bowel disease [32]. The activity of these probiotic organisms is thought to be mediated by the interaction of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs)

with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on antigen-presenting cells. In particular, the immune response against lactobacilli is dictated by conserved MAMPs [33]. As a result of these interactions, some L. gasseri strains induce DCs to CYT387 nmr produce high levels of IL-10, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α [33]. In line with these data, herein we showed that direct exposure of L. gasseri strains to DCs resulted in strong cytokine responses with no deviation toward a specific phenotype. Notably, the reported pro-inflammatory phenotype of mDCs derived from VX-680 cell line this mouse strain [34] was abrogated after challenge with both L. gasseri strains as IL-10 was also induced. Nevertheless, all of these cytokines may contribute to innate immunity by inducing the proliferation and differentiation of natural killer cells in vivo[35]. In functional experiments, we set the bacteria: eukaryotic cell ratio to 30:1 on the Enzalutamide basis of a study showing that this proportion was optimal to stimulate cells [36]. Using this protocol, a differential activity of the two L. gasseri strains was shown following bacteria challenge of mature DCs. This in vitro condition resembles the physiologic interaction occurring

between bacteria and DC protrusions across the intestinal epithelium that reflects an active response to local commensal flora and bacterial products [29]. In our experiments, the percentage of CD11b+CD11c+ DCs and the expression of co-stimulatory markers (CD40 and CD80) were increased following maturation. Intestinal lamina propria (LP) DCs are classified into CD11chiCD11bhi and CD11chiCD11blo DCs [37], which were found to be equivalent to CD103+CD8α- and CD103+CD8α+ LPDCs subsets, respectively [38]. Interestingly, only OLL2809 sustained maturation of DCs in our experiments, leaving unchanged the percentage of CD11b+CD11c+ DCs and by increasing the expression of co-stimulatory markers. We also examined the interaction of L.

Larkum and Weyrauch (1977) elucidated why the Chlorophyll a was i

Larkum and Weyrauch (1977) elucidated why the Chlorophyll a was inactive in red algae (and cyanobacteria) showing that most of the Chlorophyll a is attached to Photosystem I and is not in communication with Photosystem II (whereas phycobiliprotein is connected to both the photosystems). Blinks’s contribution to whole organism response to environmental stimuli In our view, Blinks’s most outstanding overall attribute was MK-0518 cell line his respect for the whole organism interacting with its environment and his seamless integration of knowledge from the molecular realm to the level of the whole organism. Blinks’s

deep JPH203 concentration understanding of the environment of algae may be why the present generation of ecologically oriented phycologists continue to appreciate his work (Fu and Bell 2003; Morand and Briand 1996; Pelletreau and Muller-Parker 2002; Sasaki et al. 2005; Stenck and Dethier Combretastatin A4 1994; Vadas

et al. 2004; Yano et al. 2004). A central part of his focus on the essence of critical problems was his profound understanding of the ecological context of the species and their ecosystems in which he worked. For example, it is clear that since red light is damped out of oceanic water within the first few meters, that red algae must generally live with green and blue light sources, so, of course, he tried monochromatic color lights of the ocean such as green Selleck ZD1839 and blue

versus surface red light for those living in very shallow waters (almost none are intertidal). Another example is the measurement by Blinks (1963) on the effects of changes in pH on photosynthesis by intertidal algae. As pointed out by John Raven (personal communication), this field is now a very popular field of research due to increasing interest in ocean acidification. His specimens were also fresher, thus providing clearer results as the healthiest of specimens frequently demonstrate, especially in the highly fragile red algae, which are so difficult to culture in the laboratory. During his many years at the Hopkins Marine Station, he was in the field almost daily, noting events and collecting algae. He chose to work and live at Pacific Grove because the field was immediately at hand literally in the back yard and surrounding him on three sides on the Pacific Grove-Carmel Peninsula. In his tribute to Blinks, Richard Eppley (2006) remembered him at the end of classes playing a giant kelp as a trumpet. We remember him clearly in the field during his mid-60s through his early 80s as very vigorously and enthusiastically collecting algae. He even had secret places in Hawaii and Florida where he obtained his giant cells.

At family level, 85% of the assignments are coincident between bo

At family level, 85% of the assignments are coincident between both approaches. OTUs were classified by extracting a consensus from the taxonomic assignments of their individual sequences. The objective was to find the taxon that dominates at the lowest possible taxonomic rank, fulfilling

the following criteria: having more than five sequences in the OTU, and being the only taxon with at ABT-888 cell line least 25% of the sequences of the OTU assigned to it. The usage of either RDP or Greengenes assignments produced coincident assignments for 91% of the instances, and does not alter the results significantly. Unless stated otherwise, the results shown correspond to RDP assignments. Collector’s curves To create collector’s curves for the distribution Salubrinal cell line of OTUs in environments, a single metasample was created for each environment, pooling together all the sequences from the samples corresponding to it. We simulated the sampling

of the metasample by picking up individual sequences randomly, with non-replacement. To produce the curve, we checked whether another sequence for the corresponding OTU had already been seen or not. The simulated sampling continued until no sequences were left. The full procedure was repeated ten times, and the individual curves were averaged to obtain a final result. Statistical analyses We computed a two-way table with the number of different OTUs per taxa and environment. To assess the level of bacterial biodiversity of the different environment types and the

degree of ubiquity of the taxa considered, we computed Hill biodiversity numbers [41] using this abundance community matrix for both taxa and environments, respectively. We considered Hill numbers for the scale values 0, 1 and 2 which, for a given environment, for example, correspond to the total number of families, the exponential of the Shannon index of biodiversity, and the inverse Simpson index. Exploratory data analyses revealed that those environments with more samples C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) tended to have more OTUs. To remove this ‘size’ effect, we transformed the data by MCC950 cost dividing the frequencies in each column by the number of samples in that environment, thus creating a community matrix which contained the average number of OTUs per sample for each taxa and environment type. We then carried out a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) to explore the variation in the transformed abundance matrix. We also fitted a Bayesian hierarchical model to the original community matrix in order to quantify the affinity between taxa and environments. In the first layer, our model assumes a Poisson distribution for the number of OTUs Yij observed in the taxonomic family i and environment type j.

001 peptidyl-Asp metallopetidases is underlined; (4) the three co

001 peptidyl-Asp metallopetidases is underlined; (4) the three conserved histidines (aa 167, 171, and 177), residues for zinc binding, and glutamate (aa 168), the catalytic residue, are in green; (5) two carbohydrate binding modules of the CBM_4_9 family, aa 302 to aa 432 and aa 461 to aa 586, in blue. (B) The P. aeruginosa predicted PA2783 is homologous to metalloendopeptidases from other bacteria. Interrogation of the non-redundant databases at NCBI (http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​; Selleckchem Combretastatin A4 accessed 10/18/2013) was done using BLASTP and the Peptidase Database MEROPS (http://​merops.​sanger.​ac.​uk/​index.​shtml; accessed 10/18/2013) was done

using BLAST. Identical aa are shown in red, similar aa in blue, and non-similar selleck screening library aa in black. PA2783 is homologous to the Pseudomonas mendocina ymp (Pmendo) carbohydrate-binding CenC domain-containing protein and the Ni,Fe-hydrogenase I small subunit of Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396 (Hcheju) across the entire endopeptidase domain. Other proteins contain the HEXXHXXGXXH motif only (highlighted by a yellow box). Amacle, Alteromonas macleodii; Ahydro,

Aeromonas hydrophila; Vchole, Vibrio cholerae; Vmimic, V. mimicus; Vvulni, V. vulnificus; Xfraga, Xanthomonas fragariae; Xcampe, X. campestris; Xvesic, X. vesicatoria. Percentages of aa identity and similarity may be found in Additional file 2. PA2782 encodes a putative 22.7-kDa protein of 219 aa that contains no specific motifs, except for the presence of an alanine-rich region Benzatropine within

its amino terminus (23 of the first 60 aa), and that has no functional homology with other known proteins (data not shown). Characterization of PA2783, a putative metalloendopeptidase The predicted protein PA2783 contains all the features of a potential endopeptidase including the putative glutamic acid catalytic residue and the three zinc-binding histidine residues within its amino terminus (Figure 5A) [39]. We tried to assess the proteolytic activity produced by PA2783 using dialyzed brain heart infusion skim milk agar. However, this approach proved LY2874455 unfeasible due to the production by P. aeruginosa of several proteases with strong proteolytic activities. Both PAO1/pUCP19 and PAO1/pAB2 produced identical clearing zones of protease activity (data not shown). We faced the same problem when we utilized strain PAO-R1 (Table 1), which produces a considerably reduced level of proteolytic activity due to the mutation of lasR[33]. Despite the reduction in the extracellular proteolytic activity of this strain, PAO-R1/pUCP19 and PAO-R1/pAB2 produced identical clearing zones on skim milk agar (data not shown). As an alternative, we assessed the potential proteolytic activity of PA2783 using the E. coli strain DH5α (Table 1).

12 to 2 97 between 2000 and

12 to 2.97 between 2000 and selleck inhibitor 2007 and is expected to further decrease to 2.52 by the year 2025 [2]. With increasing life expectancies in men and higher excess mortality after hip fractures in men than in women [4], osteoporosis in men will become a large burden on society and healthcare systems. Current treatments available for male osteoporosis, however, remain limited including alendronate, risedronate, zoledronate and parathormone [1]. Strontium ranelate has been primarily developed and approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In clinical trials in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis,

strontium ranelate has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral

fractures in a wide scatter of patients, from osteopenia to very elderly subjects, over a long period (up to 10 years) BLZ945 clinical trial [5–9]. The cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate in postmenopausal women has also been demonstrated in different settings [10–14]. Recently, strontium ranelate also demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of male osteoporosis in a multicentre randomised controlled trial (i.e., the MALEO Trial) [15]. Under continuing economic pressure, the assessment of a new health intervention, however, goes beyond the three regulatory criteria of quality, safety and efficacy. The assessment of cost-effectiveness is considered as the fourth

hurdle to market, and plays an increasingly role in healthcare decision making [16]. Many countries have introduced formal requirements for economic analyses as part of the pricing or reimbursement decisions [17]. As the economic value of strontium ranelate in populations of men has not been analysed yet, this study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate, compared with no treatment, for the treatment of Belgian men with Tryptophan synthase osteoporosis or a prevalent vertebral fracture (PVF). Materials and methods Economic model The simulation model is the same as the model developed for postmenopausal osteoporotic (PMO) women which has been validated [18] and used in many published health economic analyses [12, 13, 19–23]. Recently, an updated version of the model using a 6-month cycle length has been developed [23]. This last model version was slightly revised in this study to also include a health state for venous thromboembolic events (VTEs). The model was programmed using the Nirogacestat mouse software TreeAge Pro 2011 (TreeAge Pro Inc., Williamston, MA, USA). The Markov model health states are no fracture, death, VTE, hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, other fracture and the corresponding post-fracture states. Post-fracture states were created as some parameters (e.g., fracture disutility) were estimated over a 1-year period [23].

Apaydin I, Konac E, Onen HI, Akbaba M, Tekin E, Ekmekci A: Single

Apaydin I, Konac E, Onen HI, Akbaba M, Tekin E, Ekmekci A: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) gene in human sporadic breast cancer. Arch Med Res 2008, 39 (3) : 338–345.Navitoclax chemical structure CrossRefPubMed 15. Kim HO, Jo YH, Lee J, Lee SS, Yoon selleck chemical KS: The C1772T genetic polymorphism

in human HIF-1alpha gene associates with expression of HIF-1alpha protein in breast cancer. Oncol Rep 2008, 20 (5) : 1181–1187.PubMed 16. Horree N, Groot AJ, Van Hattem WA, Heintz AP, Vooijs M, Van Diest PJ: HIF-1A gene mutations associated with higher microvessel density in endometrial carcinomas. Histopathology 2008, 52 (5) : 637–639.CrossRefPubMed 17. Konac E, Onen HI, Metindir J, Alp E, Biri AA, Ekmekci A: An investigation of relationships between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha gene polymorphisms

and ovarian, cervical and endometrial cancers. Cancer Detect Prev 2007, 31 (2) : 102–109.CrossRefPubMed 18. Fransen K, Fenech M, Fredrikson M, Dabrosin C, Soderkvist P: Association between ulcerative growth and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha polymorphisms in colorectal cancer patients. Mol Carcinog 2006, 45 (11) : 833–840.CrossRefPubMed 19. Kuwai T, Kitadai Y, Tanaka S, Kuroda T, Ochiumi T, Matsumura S, Oue N, Yasui W, Kaneyasu Forskolin datasheet M, Tanimoto K, Nishiyama M, Chayama K: Single nucleotide polymorphism in the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha gene in colorectal carcinoma. Oncol Rep 2004, 12 (5) : 1033–1037.PubMed 20. Ollerenshaw M, Page T, Hammonds C1GALT1 J, Demaine A: Polymorphisms in the hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha gene (HIF1A) are associated with the renal cell carcinoma phenotype. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2004, 153 (2) : 122–126.CrossRefPubMed 21. Clifford SC, Astuti D, Hooper L, Maxwell PH, Ratcliffe PJ, Maher ER: The pVHL-associated SCF ubiquitin ligase complex: Molecular genetic analysis of elongin B and C, Rbx1 and HIF-1α in renal cell carcinoma. Oncogene 2001, 20: 5067–5074.CrossRefPubMed 22. Ling TS, Shi RH, Zhang GX, Zhu H, Yu LZ, Ding XF: Common single nucleotide polymorphism of hypoxia-inducible

factor-1 alpha and its impact on the clinicopathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Chin J Dig Dis 2005, 6 (4) : 155–158.CrossRefPubMed 23. Thakkinstian A, McElduff P, D’Este C, Duffy D, Attia J: A method for meta-analysis of molecular association studies. Stat Med 2005, 24 (9) : 1291–1306.CrossRefPubMed 24. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C: Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simples, graphical test. BMJ 1997, 315: 629–634.PubMed 25. Bax L, Yu LM, Ikeda N, Tsuruta H, Moons KGM: Development and validation of MIX: comprehensive free software for meta-analysis of causal research data. BMC Med Res Methodol 2006, 6: 50.CrossRefPubMed 26. Bax L, Yu LM, Ikeda N, Tsuruta H, Moons KGM: MIX: comprehensive free software for meta-analysis of causal research data. Version 1.7. [http://​mix-for-meta-analysis.​info] 2008. 27.