In this study, the sample transmittance was always measured at 86

In this study, the sample transmittance was always measured at 865 nm and this is denoted by a subscript on T in Eq. 5. When normalized, the amplitudes of C A and C B give the relative amounts of Q B -depleted and Q B -active RCs in the sample. The ratios in each term of Eq. 5 gives the extent that each RC sample component contributes to Alectinib in vitro the overall steady state saturation level. Method 2 A second method of analysis uses a single effective lifetime for the redox state of the whole system, regardless of whether it is a single component system or a multiple component system. The effective

rate constant of electronic equilibration, \( \tau_el^ – 1 \), is $$ \tau_el^ – 1 = I + k^\prime_\textrec = I + \left[ \fracC_A k_A + \fracC_B k_B \right]^

– 1 , $$ (6)and the effective charge recombination rate, or rate constant for electron transfer back to the bacteriochlorophyll dimmer (donor), \( k^\prime_\textrec = \tau_d^ – 1 \), is given by the term in brackets. The overall bleaching kinetics then follows the relation: $$ T_865^{{}} (I,t) = C\frac\alpha \cdot I_\exp \alpha \cdot I_\exp + k^\prime_\textrec \left( 1 – \exp \left[ - t(\alpha \cdot I_\exp + \tau_d^ - 1 ) \right] \right) . $$ (7) The factor C in Eq. 7 relates the measured transmittance in arbitrary units to the dimensionless theoretical quantity. The effective charge recombination lifetime, \( \tau_d = (k^\prime_\textrec )^ – 1 \), can also be considered as an “average survival time” of the charge separated state(s) Bay 11-7085 with respect to the donor (Agmon and Hopfield

1983; Abgaryan et al. 1998) in cases where charge recombination becomes multiexponential. It has been shown previously (Abgaryan et al. 1998; Goushcha et al. 2000) that the recombination kinetics for a complex RC system can be described using such a single effective decay parameter. For the general case of a system with a fixed structure and a finite number of localized electron states, the value of this effective decay parameter depends only on structural organization and not upon the actinic light intensity, with changes in this effective decay parameter value attributed to structural changes within the RC system. Method 2 describes a mixture of Q B -active and Q B -depleted RCs as a single homogeneous donor-acceptor system with a single effective recombination rate and is not independent of the more rigorous Method 1.

After removal of RNA, 2 μg of cDNA was fragmented with DNase and

After removal of RNA, 2 μg of cDNA was fragmented with DNase and end-labeled (GeneChip®

WT Terminal Labeling Kit; Affymetrix). Size distribution of the fragmented and end-labeled cDNA, was assessed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. 2 μg of end-labeled fragmented cDNA was used in a 200-μl hybridization cocktail containing added hybridization controls and hybridized on arrays for 16 hours at 48°C. Standard Dabrafenib price post hybridization wash and double-stain protocols (FS450_0001; GeneChip HWS kit, Affymetrix) were used on an Affymetrix GeneChip Fluidics Station 450. Arrays were scanned on an Affymetrix GeneChip scanner 3000 7G. Microarray analysis Scanned arrays were first analyzed using Affymetrix Expression Console software to obtain Absent/Present

calls and assure that all quality parameters were in the recommended range. Subsequent analysis was carried out with DNA-Chip Analyzer 2008. First a digital mask was applied, leaving for analysis only the 8305 probe sets on the array representing Sinorhizobium meliloti transcripts. Then the 6 arrays were normalized to a baseline array with median CEL intensity by applying an Invariant Set Normalization Method [51]. Normalized CEL intensities of the arrays were used to obtain model-based gene expression indices based on a PM (Perfect Match)-only model [52]. Replicate data (triplicates) for each of the wild-type and tolC mutant strains were weighted gene-wise by using inverse squared standard error as weights.

Genes compared were considered to be differentially expressed if the 90% lower confidence bound of the fold change between experiment and baseline was selleck products above 1.2, resulting in 3155 differentially expressed transcripts with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR) of 0.4%. The lower confidence bound criterion means that we can be 90% confident that the fold change is a value between the lower confidence bound and a variable upper confidence bound. Li and Wong [52] have shown that the lower confidence bound is a conservative estimate of the fold change and therefore more reliable as a ranking statistic for changes Guanylate cyclase 2C in gene expression. For a second analysis Partek Genomics Suite 6.4 was used. Here the 6 arrays were normalized and modeled using Robust Multichip Averaging (RMA). After RMA, probe sets analyzing expression of transcripts of Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa, were filtered out. For the remaining S. meliloti probe sets differential expression was determined using 1-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). FDR analysis with a cut-off of 5% determined 2842 transcripts as differentially expressed, corresponding to an ANOVA p-value cut-off of <0.017. A set of 2067 differentially expressed transcripts was identified in the two independent analyses performed. All further analyses focused on this core set. Fold change values presented in Tables 1 and 2 and in the additional files 1 and 2 were obtained using Partek Genomics Suite 6.4.

Virology 2002,296(1):84–93 PubMedCrossRef 17 Machida K, Tsukiyam

Virology 2002,296(1):84–93.PubMedCrossRef 17. Machida K, Tsukiyama-Kohara K, Seike E, Tone S, Shibasaki F, Shimizu M, Takahashi H, Hayashi Y, Funata N, Taya C, Yonekawa H, Kohara M: Inhibition of cytochrome c release in Fas-mediated signaling pathway in transgenic mice induced to express hepatitis C viral proteins. J Biol Chem 2001,276(15):12140–12146.PubMedCrossRef 18. Hahn CS, Cho YG, Kang BS, Lester IM, Hahn YS: The HCV core protein acts as a positive regulator of fas-mediated apoptosis

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62. Toledano MB, Kumar C, Le Moan N, Spector D, Tacnet F: The system biology of thiol redox system in Escherichia coli and yeast: differential functions in oxidative stress, iron metabolism and DNA synthesis. FEBS Lett 2007,581(19):3598–3607.PubMedCrossRef 63. Park S, Imlay JA: High levels of intracellular cysteine promote oxidative DNA damage by driving the fenton reaction. J Bacteriol 2003,185(6):1942–1950.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions BD, KO, TS and IMV conceived and designed the experiments. GA, EH and MM performed the experiments. MM, BD, KO, TS and IMV analyzed the data. BD, TS and IMV selleck inhibitor wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”

Regarded as harmless to humans, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is used worldwide as a commercial biopesticide for the pest control of insects. It is typically used in large spray campaigns on open fields or indoor in green houses [1]. The insecticidal effect is largely due to the characteristic ability to produce specific insect toxins from crystal toxin genes mostly harboured on large plasmids [2]. Bt is a Gram positive, Glycogen branching enzyme endospore-forming bacterium closely related to the opportunistic human pathogen Bacillus cereus [3]. Commercial Bt strains have been isolated from human faecal samples and nasal lavage cultures and elevated human IgE antibody levels have been reported after occupational exposure [4–6]. Most epidemiological and occupational studies on biopesticides have focused on immune responses, infection, food poisoning or other gastro-intestinal symptoms [4, 7–9]. The possible long-term effects after repeated pulmonary exposure in humans working with Bt biopesticides have not yet been investigated, although the endospore sizes (1-2 μm in diameter) are within inhalable sizes for humans and mice [10, 11].

Patterson K, Strek ME: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis P

Patterson K, Strek ME: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2010, 7:237–244.PubMedCrossRef

32. Moss RB: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and Aspergillus infection in cystic fibrosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2010, 16:598–603.PubMedCrossRef 33. Kraemer R, Delosea N, Ballinari P, Gallati S, Crameri R: Effect of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis on lung function in children with cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006, 174:1211–1220.PubMedCrossRef 34. Jubin V, Ranque S, Stremler Le NVP-BKM120 Bel N, Sarles J, Dubus JC: Risk factors for Aspergillus colonization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 2010, 45:764–771.PubMedCrossRef selleckchem 35. Moore JE, Shaw A, Millar BC, Downey DG, Murphy PG, Elborn JS: Microbial ecology of the cystic fibrosis

lung: does microflora type influence microbial loading? Br J Biomed Sci 2005, 62:175–178.PubMed 36. Millar FA, Simmonds NJ, Hodson ME: Trends in pathogens colonising the respiratory tract of adult patients with cystic fibrosis, 1985–2005. J Cyst Fibros 2009, 8:386–391.PubMedCrossRef 37. Hoiby N, Bjarnsholt T, Givskov M, Molin S, Ciofu O: Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2010, 35:322–332.PubMedCrossRef 38. Seidler MJ, Salvenmoser S, Muller FM: Aspergillus fumigatus forms biofilms with reduced antifungal drug susceptibility on bronchial epithelial cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008, 52:4130–4136.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Vasopressin Receptor 39. Olson ME, Ceri H, Morck DW, Buret AG, Read RR: Biofilm bacteria: formation and comparative susceptibility to antibiotics.

Can J Vet Res 2002, 66:86–92.PubMedCentralPubMed 40. Mowat E, Butcher J, Lang S, Williams C, Ramage G: Development of a simple model for studying the effects of antifungal agents on multicellular communities of Aspergillus fumigatus . J Med Microbiol 2007, 56:1205–1212.PubMedCrossRef 41. Beauvais A, Schmidt C, Guadagnini S, Roux P, Perret E, Henry C, Paris S, Mallet A, Prevost MC, Latge JP: An extracellular matrix glues together the aerial-grown hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus . Cell Microbiol 2007, 9:1588–1600.PubMedCrossRef 42. Loussert C, Schmitt C, Prevost MC, Balloy V, Fadel E, Philippe B, Kauffmann-Lacroix C, Latge JP, Beauvais A: In vivo biofilm composition of Aspergillus fumigatus . Cell Microbiol 2010, 12:405–410.PubMedCrossRef 43. Bruns S, Seidler M, Albrecht D, Salvenmoser S, Remme N, Hertweck C, Brakhage AA, Kniemeyer O, Muller FM: Functional genomic profiling of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm reveals enhanced production of the mycotoxin gliotoxin. Proteomics 2010, 10:3097–3107.PubMedCrossRef 44. Mowat E, Rajendran R, Williams C, McCulloch E, Jones B, Lang S, Ramage G: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their small diffusible extracellular molecules inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2010, 313:96–102.PubMedCrossRef 45.

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Photosynth Res 27:121–133PubMed Weis E, Ball JR, Berry J (1987) Photosynthetic control of electron transport in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. Evidence for regulation of PSII by the proton gradient. In: Biggins J (ed) Progress in photosynthesis research. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 553–556 White AJ, Critchley C (1999) Rapid light curves: a new fluorescence method to assess the state of the photosynthetic apparatus.

Photosynth Res 9:63–72 Zivcak M, Brestic M, Olsovska K, Slamka P (2008) Performance this website index as a sensitive indicator of water stress in Triticum aestivum L. Plant Soil Environ 54:133–139″
“Introduction The cytoplasmic membrane (CM) plays a universal role in cells of all three domains of life. This semipermeable barrier isolates the cytoplasm from the external environment, but environmental changes can result in changes in gene expression that lead to alterations in composition and concentration of both lipids and proteins. The membrane can also undergo regulated restructurings that are critical to cell function. In

eukaryotic cells, these events, such as those triggered by phagocytosis and cell motility, are commonplace (Lippencott and Li 2000). However, among bacteria, only a few such restructurings have been described, and are thus far limited to the α-proteobacteria. One such restructuring event see more is the differentiation of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides CM leading to the formation of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) that houses the photosynthesis system of these bacteria (Chory et al. 1984), consisting of the pigment–protein complexes of the reaction center (RC) and the two light-harvesting complexes, LHI Atorvastatin and LHII. Our present understanding of the composition and development of R. sphaeroides ICM has been comprehensively reviewed recently (Niederman 2013). As is appropriate for (facultative) anoxygenic photosynthesis, ICM

formation is induced by lowering oxygen tensions, and in R. sphaeroides wild type strain 2.4.1 three DNA binding proteins that mediate oxygen control of phototrophic growth and/or PS genes (genes that code for the structural proteins, and the enzymes that synthesize the photopigments of the photosynthetic apparatus) are known. Photosynthesis response regulatory protein A (PrrA) is the DNA binding regulatory protein of a redox-responsive two-component regulatory system (Eraso and Kaplan 1994, 1995). A functional prrA gene is required for phototrophic growth of R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 (Eraso and Kaplan 1994). Photopigment suppressor protein R (PpsR) is a transcription repressor of PS genes under aerobic conditions that was initially characterized by Penfold and Pemberton (1994). Its most important role is thought to be preventing the coincidence of Bchl a in the presence of oxygen and light (Moskvin et al. 2005), which can create a lethal situation through the production of reactive oxygen species.

0 for maximum likelihood

0 for maximum likelihood VX-809 mouse (Zwickl 2006) with 1,000 bootstrap searchreps. Voucher information and GenBank accession numbers of all fungal specimens used in this study are listed in Table 1. Table 1 Voucher information and NCBI GenBank accession numbers for the fungal ITS and LSU sequences used in the study Species GenBank Accession numbers ITS/LSU Reference ITS/LSU, if not same Pyrgillus javanicus Nyl. DQ826741/DQ823103 James et al. 2006 Caliciopsis sp. GQ259981/GQ259980 Pratibha et al. 2011 Chaenothecopsis consociata (Násdv.) A.F.W.Schmidt AY795851/DQ008999 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Chaenothecopsis debilis (Sm.) Tibell AY795852/AY795991 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Chaenothecopsis

diabolica Rikkinen & Tuovila JX119109/JX119114 this study Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Titov AY795854/AY795993 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Chaenothecopsis fennica (Laurila) Tibell AY795857/AY795995 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Chaenothecopsis golubkovae Tibell & Titov AY795859/AY795996

Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Chaenothecopsis khayensis Rikkinen & Tuovila JX122785/HQ172895 this study/Tuovila et al. 2011a Chaenothecopsis montana Rikkinen JX119105/JX119114 this study Chaenothecopsis nigripunctata Rikkinen JX119103/JX119112 this study Chaenothecopsis proliferatus Rikkinen, A.R.Schmidt & Tuovila Belinostat cell line –/JX122783 this study Chaenothecopsis pusiola (Ach.) Vain JX119106/JX119115 this study Chaenothecopsis sitchensis Rikkinen JX119102/JX119111 this study Chaenothecopsis tsugae Rikkinen JX119104/JX119113 this study Chaenothecopsis vainioana (Nádv.) Tibell JX119107/JX119116 this study Chaenothecopsis viridireagens (Násdv.) A.F.W.Schmidt JX119108/JX119117 this study Chaenothecopsis

pallida Rikkinen & Tuovila (ined.) JX122779/JX122781 this study Chaenothecopsis hunanensis Rikkinen & Tuovila (ined.) JR990061/JX122784 this study Chaenothecopsis resinophila Rikkinen & Tuovila (ined.) JX122780/JX122782 this study Chaenothecopsis sp. JX119110/JX119119 this study Phaeocalicium polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell a AY789363/AY789362 Wang et al. 2005 Mycocalicium sequoiae Bonar –/AY796002 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Mycocalicium subtile (Pers) Morin Hydrate Szatala AF225445/AY796003 Vinuesa et al. 2001/Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Phaeocalicium populneum (Brond ex Duby) A.F.W. Schmidt AY795874/AY796009 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Sphinctrina leucopoda Nyl. AY795875/AY796006 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers. ex Fr.) de Not AY795877/DQ009001 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 Stenocybe pullatula (Ach.) Stein AY795878/AY796008 Tibell and Vinuesa 2005 aDeposited as Mycocalicium polyporaeum (Nyl.) Vain Results Extant fungus from China Chaenothecopsis proliferatus Rikkinen, A. R. Schmidt et Tuovila sp. nov. Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Fig. 3 SEM images of ascomata of Chaenothecopsis proliferatus sp. nov. (holotype, JR 990061). a Ascomata. b Detail of epithecium. c Detail of exciple. Scale bars: 100 μm (a) and 20 μm (b and c) Fig. 4 SEM images showing anatomical details of Chaenothecopsis proliferatus sp. nov.

As a result of the distinct behaviour of the isolates from non-hu

As a result of the distinct behaviour of the isolates from non-human sources, we will also focus on the comparison of human and animal isolates to further elaborate potential differences in infection mechanisms. The specific clinical association with gastrointestinal neoplasia due to S. bovis biotype I or S. gallolyticus, respectively

[7–9] strongly imply that S. gallolyticus enter the human body via the gastrointestinal tract through sites with decreased intestinal barrier function such as colonic malignancies. Unfortunately, a correlation between the number of existing virulence genes, biofilm formation, invasion and adhesion characteristics with the presence Hedgehog inhibitor or absence of colonic malignancies can barely be created with the small number of available patient data at present. Indeed, the bacterial translocation is the first important step in the development of IE before colonizing the endothelium, and mechanisms of adherence to and invasion

of epithelial cells play an important role during this initial phase of infection. Therefore, our future investigations will also address this important mechanism to potentially disclose clues on specific features of individual S. gallolyticus strains. In conclusion, this is the first description of S. gallolyticus adhesion to and invasion of human endothelial cells. The established in vitro model provides a convenient system to evaluate differences in the virulence characteristics of different strains. Binding to ECM proteins and biofilm formation INK 128 mouse provide additional information for strain characterization. The first identification of a possible pilus-associated gene in S. gallolyticus

supplemented the so far limited availability of possible virulence factors. This study provides important initial characterization of variability and behaviour of the as yet barely analyzed endocarditis pathogen S. gallolyticus. Acknowledgements We thank Sarah L. Kirkby for her linguistic advice. This work was supported by the “”Forschungsfoerderung der Medizinischen Fakultaet der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (FoRUM), Grant F606-2007. References 1. Naber CK, Bauhofer A, Block M, Buerke M, Erbel R, Graninger W, Herrmann M: S2-Leitlinie zur Diagnostik und Therapie der infektiösen Endokarditis. Z Kardiol 2004, 93:1005–1021.PubMedCrossRef 2. Sillanpää J, Nallapareddy SR, Singh KV, Ferraro however MJ, Murray BE: Adherence characteristics of endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus ( Streptococcus bovis biotype I) isolates to host extracellular matrix proteins. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008,289(1):104–109.PubMedCrossRef 3. Schlegel L, Grimont F, Ageron E, Grimont PA, Bouvet A: Reappraisal of the taxonomy of the Streptococcus bovis / Streptococcus equinus complex and related species: description of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus subsp. nov., S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus subsp. nov. and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus subsp. nov.

coli as soluble in the cell lysate following IPTG induction For

coli as soluble in the cell lysate following IPTG induction. For preparation of immunogen, the soluble NS1 was purified by Amylose Resin according to pMAL™ Protein Fusion and Purification System, Version 5.01 (New England Biolabs, Inc., USA). Purified NS1 was used for immunization. Hybridoma cells secreting anti-NS1 antibodies were generated according to standard procedures [45]. Briefly, six-week-old female BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified NS1 emulsified see more with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA). Two booster injections containing purified NS1 with equal volume of Freund’s incomplete

adjuvant were given at 2-week intervals. The final immunization, purified NS1 without adjuvant was given intraperitoneally. Three days after the

final dose, mice were euthanized and spleen cells were Pirfenidone supplier harvested and fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells at 5-10:1 ratio using polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000, Sigma). Hybridoma cells were seeded into 96-well plates and selected in HAT medium (DMEM containing 20% fetal bovine serum, 100 ug ml-1 streptomycin, 100 IU ml-1 penicillin, 100 mM hypoxanthine, 16 mM thymidine and 400 mM aminopterin), and after 5 days, the medium was removed and replaced with fresh HT-DMEM medium. After HAT/HT selection, culture supernatants of surviving clones were screened for reactivity and specificity by indirect ELISA, WB and IFA. The ELISA was described previously [46]. Briefly, microplates were sensitized learn more at 4°C overnight with affinity-purified WNV-NS1 antigen at 100 ng ml-1. The sensitized plates were incubated with culture supernatants from hybridoma cells at 37°C for 1 h, with HRP-conjugated goat anti-mouse secondary antibodies (LICOR Biosciences) at a 1:4,000 dilution at 37°C for 1 h, followed

by color development with substrate solution containing o-phenylenediamine (OPD). WB was performed as described above, but the primary antibodies were the mAbs supernatant and HRP-conjugated goat anti-mouse secondary antibodies were used. The IFA results were supplied by Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology. WNV, JEV, DENV1-4, YFV and TBEV antigen slides were prepared on porous slides using WNV, JEV, DENV1-4, YFV and TBEV infected and uninfected C6/36 cells. Cell suspensions were dripped onto slides, fixed using acetone, air dried and stored at -20°C. Next, anti-NS1 mAbs supernatant and WNV-, JEV-, DENV1-4-, YFV- and TBEV-positive/negative mouse sera (working dilution was 1:100) (positive/negative control) were incubated on acetone-fixed antigen slides for 2 h. A FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (Sigma, USA) was used as a secondary antibody at a 1:50 dilution, and slides were viewed at a magnification of ×40 on a fluorescence microscope (Leica, Germany) [47]. The positive cell clones were subcloned three times by limiting dilution method.

The genes of the che operon as well as the fla genes CE, F, G, H,

The genes of the che operon as well as the fla genes CE, F, G, H, I, J are cotranscribed [43, 55], so not all genes needed to be analyzed separately. cheR and cheY were chosen for analysis because cheR is at the border of the che operon, next to the deleted genes, and cheY was an additional control. cheC2 and cheW2, which

are not located in the che operon, were not tested separately, because the deletion of these genes does not cause a smooth-swimming phenotype (unpublished observations). Additionally, flaH was chosen as a representative of the fla genes, although a defect in Fla protein expression seemed a priori unlikely since no motility defect was observed. Table Dabrafenib chemical structure 2 Che and Fla protein expression in deletion strains. Strain Clone CheR CheY FlaH Δ1 1 1.24 1.06 1.76   2 1.11 1.21 1.28 Δ2 1 1.58 -1.46 1.39   2 1.00 -1.37 1.30 Δ4 1 1.24 1.08 2.03   2 -1.05 1.46 1.65 Δ2–4 1 1.14 -1.16 1.77   2 -1.96 -1.45 -1.37 The mRNA levels in the deletions in S9 were determined by qRT-PCR. Given is the fold difference in the mRNA level of the deletions compared to S9 Deforolimus chemical structure wildtype. Each result is the average of two replicates.

The qRT-PCR curves were analyzed using the method with normalization to the constitutively expressed fdx gene [56]. In none of the tested cases was a significant difference between deletion and wildtype observed. Complementation of the deletion strains reverted their phenotype to that of wildtype All deletions in the S9 background were complemented by reintroducing the deleted gene in cis. The phenotype of the complementations was examined by swarm plates and, for the single deletions, by motion analysis. In these assays, all complementations behaved exactly like the wild-type strain (see Additional file 5), confirming that the phenotypes observed in the mutants were a direct result of their gene

deletions. Bioinformatics analysis Tolmetin To collect information on the three unknown proteins and to test if the findings obtained in H. salinarum are potentially transferable to other archaeal species, a bioinformatics analysis was done. The starting point was a homology search and querying databases like COG [57] and Pfam [58]. The goal was to identify orthologs from other organisms for which some knowledge might exist, and to unravel correlations between the occurrence of the here investigated proteins and Che and Fla proteins. For this, an extensive search for Che and Fla orthologs in all published archaeal genomes was performed (see Additional file 6). OE2401F is classified as a HEAT_PBS or HEAT family protein [58]. These proteins are predicted to contain short bi-helical repeats. Beside the HEAT-like repeats, no other domain could be detected.