m. morsitans (32.3D, 30.9D and 24.4A) also shared three HVR haplotypes (HVR1, 2 and 4). The overall number of unique haplotypes per HVR varied. The WSP profile analysis showed the presence of seven HVR1, four HVR2, six HVR3 and five HVR4 haplotypes. The analysis also revealed the presence of new haplotypes: four for HVR1,
two for HVR2, four HVR3 and one for HVR4 (Table 3). Table 3 Wolbachia WSP HVR profiles for 11 populations of Glossina Code Species Country (area, collection date) wsp HVR1 HVR2 GDC-0973 price HVR3 HVR4 12.3A G. m. morsitans Zambia (MFWE, Eastern Zambia, 2007) 548 192 9 12 202 32.3D G. m. morsitans Zimbabwe (Makuti, 2006) 356 142 9 12 9 GmcY G. m. centralis Yale lab-colony (2008) 550 193 9 221 202 30.9D G. m. morsitans Zimbabwe (Rukomeshi, 2006) 356 142 9 12 9 GmmY G. m. morsitans Yale lab-colony (2008) 548 192 9 12 202 24.4A G. m. morsitans KARI-TRC lab-colony (2008) 549 142 9 223 9 09.7G G. brevipalpis
Seibersdorf lab-colony (1995) 11 9 9 12 9 05.2B G. austeni South Africa (Zululand, 1999) 551 180 40 210 18 GauK G. austeni Kenya (Shimba Hills, 2010) 507 180 40 210 18 15.5B G. pallidipes Ethiopia (Arba Minch, 2007) 552 195 224 224 63 405.11F G. p. gambiensis Guinea (Kindoya, 2009) 553 194 223 222 220 WSP profiles of Wolbachia selleck compound for 11 populations of Glossina, defined as the combination of the four HVR amino acid haplotypes. Each WSP amino acid sequence (corresponding to residues 52 to 222 of the wMel sequences) was partitioned into four consecutive sections, whose breakpoints fall within conserved regions between the hypervariable regions, as follows: HVR1 (amino acids 52 to 84), HVR2 (amino acids 85 to 134), HVR3 (amino acids 135 to 185), and HVR4 (amino acids 186 to 222) . Phylogenetic analysis Phylogenetic analysis based on a concatenated NVP-BSK805 concentration dataset of all MLST loci revealed that the Wolbachia strains infecting G. m. morsitans, G. m. centralis, G. brevipalpis, G. pallidipes and G. austeni belong to supergroup A,
while the Wolbachia strain infecting G. p. gambiensis fell into supergroup B (Fig. 1). The respective phylogenetic analysis based on the wsp gene dataset confirmed these PTK6 results (Fig. 2). Phylogenetic reconstructions for concatenated alignments of MLST loci and wsp sequences showed similar results by both Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood methods. The Bayesian phylogenetic trees are presented in Figures 1 and 2 while the Maximum Likelihood trees are shown in Supplementary Figures 1 and 2 (Additional Files 2 and 3). The tsetse flies Wolbachia strains within the supergroup A form three different clusters. The first cluster includes the Wolbachia strains present in G. m. morsitans, G. m. centralis and G. brevipalpis. This cluster is closely related to Wolbachia strains infecting the fruit fly Drosophila bifasciata. The second cluster includes the Wolbachia strains infecting G. austeni populations and is distantly related to the strain present in Pheidole micula.