There was a trend (p = .07) for greater selleck chemicals llc vertical jump power with betaine versus placebo, however there were no increases in bench press 1 RM. The improvements in lean mass, fat mass and body fat percentage with betaine supplementation contrast previous investigations [5, 6]. Differences in methodology may explain these discrepancies: subjects in the previous studies were both sedentary and instructed not to exercise, whereas the subjects in the present study were currently training and given a structured exercise program. Betaine has been suggested to act as a nutrient partitioner and thereby accelerate lean mass gains in pigs. By increasing Hcy transmethylation, betaine
spares Met, allows for more efficient use of dietary protein, and increases nitrogen retention . Due to the inclusion of resistance training in this study but not previous studies [5, 6], the demand for Met in the initiation of translation in protein synthesis was likely elevated, thereby leading to a greater utilization of elevated Met, and thus improvements in lean mass. Therefore, the results from the present study lend support to the hypothesis that the action of betaine to improve body composition
see more in humans may be most effective when accompanied by exercise. The increase in arm CSA in the betaine group compared to placebo was accompanied by an improvement in bench press work capacity. The greatest
improvements in volume over placebo occurred during the first and third training micro-cycles, where subjects were instructed to perform 3 sets of 12–15 repetitions with 90 sec rest periods and 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions with 120 sec rest periods, respectively. Given the relationship between training volume and hypertrophy , betaine may have positively impacted muscle growth by promoting Depsipeptide a greater training load over a series of subsequent workouts. The improvements in bench press work capacity differ from previous studies where betaine did not improve single-set repetitions to LY333531 mw fatigue at 75%  or 3 sets of repetitions to fatigue at 85% 1 RM . In contrast, betaine improved work capacity for 10 sets of repetitions to fatigue at 50% 1 RM . Given improved work capacity with higher volume resistance training prescriptions, and the lack of improvement during micro-cycle 2 which imposed less of a metabolic demand (4 sets of 4–6 repetitions with 3 min rest), it is likely that betaine poses the most ergogenic potential in resistance training exercise protocols that impose higher metabolic demands. Betaine is actively taken up by skeletal muscle during periods of stress, and may be ergogenic as an osmolyte by protecting sensitive metabolic pathways against cellular hypertonicity such as protein turnover, amino acid and ammonia metabolism, pH regulation, and gene expression .