Uni- and multivariate analyses of patient and immunologic graft s

Uni- and multivariate analyses of patient and immunologic graft survival were conducted. Results:

The sole factor predicting patient survival is recipient’s age: 10-year survival rates are 94.7, 81.6 and 57.9% for the smaller than 45, 45-60 and bigger than 60 years age groups, respectively (P smaller than 0.001). Peak ( bigger than 50% panel reactive antibodies) anti-human leucocyte antigens (HLA) sensitization, cold ischaemia time and HLA-B and -DR mismatches (MM) influence graft outcome: at 10 years, the difference in 10-year survival rates is 5.9% between grafts from sensitized and not sensitized patients (90.9 vs 96.8%, P=0.002), 3.8% between grafts with smaller than 18 and bigger than = 18 hours cold ischaemia (96.6 vs 92.8%, P=0.003), 7.3% between grafts with no MM and Pexidartinib either B or DR MM versus those with B and DR MM (96.8 vs 89.5%, P=0.002). Conclusion: In our single centre

experience, graft survival was most strongly determined by HLA matching, offering excellent long term graft outcome to most patients.”
“In this paper, we have investigated the effect of generalized discriminate analysis (GDA) on classification performance of optic nerve disease from visual evoke potentials (VEPs) signals. The GDA method has been used as a pre-processing step prior to the classification process of optic nerve disease. The proposed method consists of two parts. First, GDA has been used as pre-processing to increase Epigenetics inhibitor the distinguishing of optic nerve disease from VEP signals. Second, we have used the C4.5 decision tree classifier, Levenberg Marquart (LM) back propagation algorithm, artificial immune recognition system (AIRS), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Without GDA, we have obtained 84.37%, 93.75%, 75%, 76.56%, and 53.125% classification accuracies using C4.5 decision tree classifier, LM back propagation algorithm, AIRS, LDA, and SVM algorithms, respectively. With GDA, 93.75%, 93.86%, 81.25%, 93.75%, and 93.75% classification accuracies have been obtained using BMN 673 in vivo the above

algorithms, respectively. These results show that the GDA pre-processing method has produced very promising results in diagnosis of optic nerve disease from VEP signals. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In a placebo-controlled randomised study of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor imatinib mesylate and docetaxel in metastatic prostate cancer with bone metastases (n = 116), no significant differences in progression-free and overall survival were observed. To evaluate pharmacodynamic correlates of outcomes, we assessed the association of plasma platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoform kinetics and PDGFR inhibition with progression-free and overall survival by individual treatment arm.

We suggest that the high R-2 for respiration suggests that soil o

We suggest that the high R-2 for respiration suggests that soil organic matter quality, microbial community composition, and clay mineralogy explain at most 22% of the variance in respiration, while they could explain up to 67% of the variance in net N mineralization. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The development in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, is described from a Dutch perspective. The newly formed Republic in the 17th century, with its pragmatism and

business-like character, became an ideal breeding, ground for Descartes’ new philosophy. His separation of body and soul provided a mechanistic model of body structure and formed a firm basis for anatomical selleck inhibitor and physiological research to become catalysts for a tempestuous growth and progress in medicine. (Neth Heart 2009;17:130-5.)”
“The continuous catalytic oxidation of aqueous Crystal Violet (CV) solutions has been investigated using a nickel catalysts (7 wt%) supported over Mg-Al mixed oxides in a trickle-bed reactor. The influence of the temperature, pressure, gas find more flow and dye initial concentration were studied in the catalytic wet air oxidation of CV. The catalyst showed a very stable activity up to 350 h on stream with an average total organic carbon (TOC) conversion of 64%. CV and TOC removal were very sensitive to the temperature. Dye conversion augmented from 44.7%

at 120 degrees C to 86.1% at 180 degrees C Dye conversion varied from 62.6 to 18.4%, TOC from 59.5 to 18.7% and TN from

66.6 to 14.0% within 10 to 50 ppm of initial dye concentration. The leaching of Ni was 6 wt% of the initial metal present in the catalyst and a 0.59% of carbonaceous deposit was formed onto the catalyst surface. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The efficacy of soil treatments of three native entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) against Tuta absoluta larvae, pupae and adults was determined under laboratory conditions. The selleck kinase inhibitor effect of three insecticides commonly used against T. absoluta, in the survival, infectivity and reproduction of these nematode strains was also evaluated. When dropped into soil to pupate, soil application of nematodes resulted in a high mortality of larvae: 100, 52.3 and 96.7 % efficacy for S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora respectively. No mortality of pupae was observed and mortality of adults emerging from soil was 79.1 % for S. carpocapsae and 0.5 % for S. feltiae. The insecticides tested had a negligible effect on nematode survival, infectivity and reproduction. No sublethal effects were observed. Infective juveniles that survived to insecticide exposition were able to infect Galleria larvae with no significant differences from the control.

In addition to describing current and projected


In addition to describing current and projected

prevalence estimates of substance abuse among older adults, the present review discusses how aging affects brain systems involved in drug abuse, and explores the potential impact of drug abuse on the aging brain. Future directions for substance abuse research among older adults will also be considered.”
“Aim. The onset of posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) among kidney recipients is associated with an increased risk of graft failure and death. Minimizing the risk of PTDM is a priority for long-term improvement in survival rates. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of PTDM and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among a population of kidney transplant recipients to identify the risk factors selleck chemical and to evaluate graft and patient survivals.\n\nMethods. We analyzed 250 consecutive Caucasian patients who received kidney allografts in our center between May 2000 and December 2005, with a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 1.-78 months).\n\nResults. We observed altered glucose metabolism in 17% of patients; specifically, the prevalences of PTDM and IFG were 12.2% and 4.8%, respectively. Patients who 2 developed PTDM or IFG were overweight (BMI, 26.4 +/- 3.4

and 28.1. +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) respectively), whereas the normal glucose HDAC inhibitor review (NG) group’s BMI was 23.8 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2) (P = .002 and P = .004, respectively). Prevalence of acute rejection was higher in the PTDM and IFG patients compared with the NG patients (60.7%, 63.6%, and 32.1%, respectively; Nepicastat manufacturer P = .006; P < .04), while no difference was observed in terms of graft and patient overall survival.\n\nConclusion. In our series of patients, we showed that being overweight represents a major risk factor for the development of PTDM, which results in an increased acute rejection

rate. These results confirmed the importance of appropriate weight control among patients undergoing kidney transplantation, which should also be strictly monitored for all risk factors associated with the development of impaired glucose metabolism.”
“Standard first-line therapy for older patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) includes hypomethylating agents, such as azacitidine (AZA). However, the only approach with curative potential remains allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). To date, no direct comparison of both strategies has been reported. The outcomes of 2 well-balanced cohorts of patients with high-risk MDS defined by age (60-70 years), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score <= 2), and donor availability (yes/no) were compared, including 103 patients undergoing HCT and 75 patients without this option who received AZA.

Masculinization of the internal and external genitalia during fet

Masculinization of the internal and external genitalia during fetal development depends on the existence of two discrete testicular hormones. Testosterone secreted from Leydig cells induces the differentiation of the mesonephric ducts into the epididymis, vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles, whereas anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) produced by Sertoli cells induces the regression of the paramesonephric ducts. The absence of AMH action in early fetal life results in the formation of the fallopian tubes, uterus and upper third of the vagina. In some target tissues, testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone, which is responsible for the masculinization of the urogenital sinus and external

“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes after arthroscopic excision of the bony prominence after a tibial spine avulsion fracture. Selleck GANT61 Methods: This study included 7 subjects (5 female and 2 male subjects; mean age, 21.4 years). All subjects underwent preoperative rehabilitation focused on range of motion (ROM) and swelling control. Postoperative

rehabilitation focused on regaining JIB-04 supplier symmetric knee hyperextension and flexion. Objective examinations and subjective surveys were obtained at least 1 year after surgery. Results: All subjects achieved normal knee extension; 6 patients achieved normal knee flexion, whereas 1 patient had nearly normal flexion. Physical examination showed a negative Lachman test with a firm end point in all patients, and the mean side-to-side difference for the KT-1000 manual maximum test (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) was 1.3 mm. No subjects required subsequent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. All JPH203 datasheet subjects returned to their

previous level of activity without instability symptoms. At a mean of 5.7 years after surgery, the mean International Knee Documentation Committee subjective survey score was 90.6 points overall, with 4.7 out of 5 possible points for the instability question. At latest follow-up, the mean ROM was from 6 degrees of hyperextension to 147 degrees of flexion in the involved knee, compared with 6 degrees of hyperextension to 148 degrees of flexion for the noninvolved knee. Conclusions: The results of arthroscopic excision of the bony fragment after type II, III, or III+ tibial spine avulsion fracture are positive, with good stability, symmetric ROM, and high subjective scores. Most importantly, this procedure allows patients to regain full, symmetric hyperextension of the knee, avoiding the complications associated with extension loss. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series.”
“Purpose: To estimate the magnitude and causes of blindness and low vision in The Netherlands from 2000 to 2020.\n\nMethods: Recent population-based blindness surveys in established market economies were reviewed.

Based on empirical data from 64 countries across the five contine

Based on empirical data from 64 countries across the five continents over the past 30-70 years, we document the observed relationship between the average inter-epidemic period, birth rate and vaccine coverage. We then use a mathematical model to explore the range of scenarios for duration of immunity and transmission resulting from repeat infections that are consistent with empirical evidence. Estimates of pertussis periodicity ranged between 2 and 4.6 years, with a strong association with susceptible recruitment Cl-amidine in vitro rate, defined as birth rate x (1 – vaccine coverage).

Periodicity increased by 1.27 years on average after the introduction of national vaccination programmes (95% CI: 1.13, 1.41 years), indicative of increased herd immunity. Mathematical models suggest that the observed patterns of pertussis periodicity are equally consistent with loss of immunity that is not as rapid as currently thought, or with negligible transmission generated by repeat infections. We conclude that both vaccine coverage and birth rate drive pertussis periodicity globally and that vaccination ZD1839 in vitro induces strong herd immunity effects. A better understanding of the role of repeat infections in pertussis transmission is critical to refine existing control strategies.”
“Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal

IgG(2) antibody that binds to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and inhibits bone resorption due to RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. this website In Europe, subcutaneous denosumab is indicated for cancer treatment-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer and in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.\n\nIn a large (n = 1468), well designed, multinational, phase III trial in adult patients with prostate cancer who were receiving androgen-deprivation therapy, bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine was significantly improved from baseline after 24 (primary endpoint) and 36 months of treatment with subcutaneous denosumab (60 mg once every 6 months), relative to that with placebo. Moreover, the risk of new vertebral fracture

was significantly reduced by 62% in the denosumab group compared with the placebo group.\n\nIn breast cancer patients receiving aromatase inhibitor therapy (n=252), subcutaneous denosumab (60 mg once every 6 months) significantly improved BMD at the lumbar spine from baseline after 12 (primary endpoint) and 24 months of treatment relative to placebo in a pivotal phase III trial.\n\nThere were significant improvements in BMD at all skeletal sites, including the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck, after 24 and 36 months’ denosumab treatment in prostate cancer patients and after 12 and 24 months’ treatment in breast cancer patients. In general, these improvements occurred irrespective of baseline characteristics, including age, duration of hormone ablation therapy, and baseline BMD.

These compounds disrupted HuR ARE interactions at the nanomolar l

These compounds disrupted HuR ARE interactions at the nanomolar level and blocked HuR function by competitive binding to HuR. These results support future studies toward chemical probes for a HuR function study and possibly a novel therapy for HuR-overexpressing

“Experimental check details and computational studies are reported on half-sandwich rhodium complexes that undergo B-H bond activation with pinacolborane (HBpin = HB(OCMe2CMe2O)). The photochemical reaction of [Rh(eta(5)-C5H5)(RR-phospholane)(C2H4)] 3 (phospholane = PhP(CHMeCH2CH2CHMe)) with HBpin generates the boryl hydride in two distinguishable isomers [(S-Rh)-Rh(eta(5)-C5H5)(Bpin)(H)(R,R-phospholane)] 5a and [(R-Rh)-Rh(eta(5)-C5H5)(Bpin)(H)(RR-phospholane)] 5b that undergo intramolecular exchange. The presence of a chiral phosphine allowed the determination of

the interconversion rates Prexasertib mw (epimerization) by 1D H-1 EXSY spectroscopy in C6D6 solution yielding Delta H-double dagger = 83.4 +/- 1.8 W mol(-1) for conversion of 5a to 5b and 79.1 +/- 1.4 kJ mol-1 for 5b to 5a. Computational analysis yielded gas-phase energy barriers of 96.4 kJ mol(-1) determined at the density functional theory (DFT, B3PW91) level for a model with PMe3 and B(OCH2-CH2O) ligands; higher level calculations (MPW2PLYP) on an optimized QM/MM(ONIOM) geometry Fluoro-Sorafenib for the full system place the transition

state 76.8 kJ mol(-1) above the average energy of the two isomers. The calculations indicate that the exchange proceeds via a transition state with a a-B-H-bonded borane. The B-H bond lies in a mirror plane containing rhodium and phosphorus. No intermediate with an)72-B-H ligand is detected either by experiment or calculation. Complex 3 has also been converted to the [Rh(eta(2)-B-H) C5H5)Br-2(R,R-phospholane)] (characterized crystallographically) and [Rh(eta(5)-C5H5)(H)2(RR-phospholane)]. The latter exhibits two inequivalent hydride resonances that undergo exchange with Delta H-double dagger = 101 2 kJ mol(-1). DFT calculations indicate that the boryl hydride complex has a lower exchange barrier than the dihydride complex because of steric hindrance between the phospholane and Bpin ligands in the boryl hydride.”
“Juzentaihoto (JTT) is a well-known Japanese herbal medicine, which has been reported to modulate immune responses and enhance antitumor immunity in animal models. However, it is not clear whether JTT has similar effects on humans. In particular, there is little information on the effects of JTT in antigen-specific immunity in cancer patients.

However, it also led to sharp strength degradation at high temper

However, it also led to sharp strength degradation at high temperature because the metallic phase was easier to be oxidized and get soft at high temperature in air. The effects

of metallic phase on strengthening and toughening were discussed. The improved fracture toughness of composite with metallic phase was attributed to the lower residual tensile stress in the matrix and the interaction of more effective energy consuming mechanisms, such as crack bridged by particle, crack deflection and intragranular grain failure. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the association between occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and electrical shocks and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in this website the Nordic Occupational Cancer cohort (NOCCA). We included 5,409 adult AML cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden and 27,045 controls matched by age, sex, and country.

Lifetime occupational ELF-MF exposure and risk of electrical shocks were assigned to jobs reported in the censuses using job-exposure matrices. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) using conditional logistic regression adjusted for concurrent occupational exposures relevant for AML risk (e.g., benzene, ionizing Selleckchem Navitoclax radiation). We conducted sensitivity analyses with different assumptions to assess the robustness of our results. Approximately 40 % of the subjects were ever occupationally exposed to low levels and 7 % to high levels of ELF-MF, whereas 18 % were ever at low risk and 15 % at high risk of electrical shocks. We did not observe an association between occupational exposure to neither ELF-MF nor electrical shocks and AML. The HR was 0.88 (95 % CI 0.77-1.01) for subjects with high levels of ELF-MF Selleck Evofosfamide exposure and 0.94 (95 % CI 0.85-1.05) for subjects

with high risk of electrical shocks as compared to those with background-level exposure. Results remained materially unchanged in sensitivity analyses with different assumptions. Our results do not support an association between occupational ELF-MF or electric shock exposure and AML.”
“This study evaluated the ‘constancy’ of head turning as recorded two-dimensionally by accelerometers. Fourteen healthy participants turned the head with his/her natural and comfortable speed. Maximum inclination angles (MIA) during head turning were measured in four (anterior, posterior, right, and left) directions of clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) conditions. Three indices were used for the evaluation: (1) standard deviations of MIA as an index of ‘spatial constancy,’ (2) anterior/posterior and right/left ratios from intervals among four MIA as indices of ‘temporal constancy,’ and (3) first derivatives from head turning trajectories as an index of ‘angular velocity.’ The spatial index varied from 0.15A degrees to 9.

Study Design Demographic and clinical

\n\nStudy Design. Demographic and clinical find more data of 8 patients with foreign body granulomas

containing the characteristic microscopic appearance of hydroxyapatite microspheres were studied. Analysis of the microspheres of 1 case was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to confirm the calcium and phosphorus content.\n\nResults. The clinical and microscopic appearance of Radiesse-induced foreign body granulomas is illustrated and discussed.\n\nConclusions. Foreign body granulomas containing hydroxyapatite microspheres in patients receiving treatment with the cosmetic filler Radiesse have a characteristic microscopic appearance. Oral Radiesse-induced nodules occur more often in older women, most commonly in the lips and the mandibular labial vestibule. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012;114:107-111)”
“Exposure to blood and body fluids is an occupational hazard in healthcare. Although the potential for blood-borne virus transmission through needlestick injury has been widely studied, the risk of this occurring through spatter contamination from safety-needle syringes is not well understood. This report examines this risk from three commonly used safety needles and suggests that this presents

a new and significant hazard. Further work should be commissioned to quantify this hazard and determine which type of safety needle would minimize spatter contamination following syringe discharge and safety activation. Crown Copyright (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of the Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.”
“Naked this website barley is an underutilized crop that is suitable for the production of functional food: it contains remarkable amounts of beta-glucans, which are well known for their blood cholesterol and short-time blood sugar regulating properties and their impact on weight regulation. The aim of the present work was to develop naked barley bread with satisfying sensory characteristics and good baking qualities that could augment the intake

of dietary fiber, especially beta-glucans and therefore meet the requirements of the EFSA health claim for beta-glucans.\n\nThe results of the multiple response optimization suggest that the elevated use of water, malt flour and margarine in pure naked ALK inhibitor cancer barley bread augment the sensory attractiveness whereas the use of acidifier and pre-gelatinized flour has a negative effect on the sensory quality. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A novel antibacterial polymer, coated with a silver-containing organic composite antibacterial agent, was dispersed in a self-cured acrylic resin. Residual viable cell count of each oral bacterial and fungal species cultivated on acrylic resin specimens containing the antibacterial polymer was significantly decreased when compared to those cultivated on specimens prepared from untreated polymer.

In vitro study revealed that TLS could directly bind to truncated

In vitro study revealed that TLS could directly bind to truncated N-terminal huntingtin (tNhtt) aggregates but could not bind to monomer GST-tNhtt with 18, 42, or 62Q, indicating Nirogacestat manufacturer that the tNhtt protein acquired the ability to sequester TLS after forming aggregates. Thioflavin T assay and electron microscopic study further supported the idea that TLS bound

to tNhtt-42Q aggregates at the early stage of tNhtt-42Q amyloid formation. Immunohistochemistry showed that TLS was associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusions of Huntington disease human brain. Because TLS has a variety of functional roles, the sequestration of TLS to polyQ aggregates may play a role in diverse pathological changes in the brains of patients with polyQ diseases.”
“The proteorhodopsin (PR) family found in bacteria near the ocean’s surface consists of hundreds of PR variants color-tuned to their environment. PR contains a highly conserved single histidine at position 75, which is not found in most other retinal proteins. Using C-13 and N-15 MAS NMR, we were able to prove for green PR that His75 forms a pH-dependent H-bond with the primary proton acceptor Asp97, which explains its

unusually high pK(a). The functional role of His75 has been studied using site-directed mutagenesis and time-resolved optical spectroscopy: Ultrafast vis-pump/vis-probe experiments on PRH75N showed that the primary reaction dynamics is retained, while flash photolysis experiments revealed an accelerated photocycle. Our data show the formation Small molecule library order of a pH-dependent His-Asp cluster which might be typical for eubacterial retinal proteins. Despite its stabilizing function, His75 was found to slow the photocycle in wild-type PR. This means that PR was not optimized by evolution for fast proton transfer, which raises questions about its true function in vivo.”
“Background: Reference genes are widely used to normalise transcript abundance data determined by quantitative RTPCR and microarrays. However, the approaches taken to define reference genes can be variable. Although Oryza sativa (rice) is a widely used model plant and important crop specie,

there has been no comprehensive analysis carried out to define superior reference genes.\n\nResults: Analysis of 136 Affymetrix transcriptome datasets comprising of 373 genome microarrays from CCI-779 studies in rice that encompass tissue, developmental, abiotic, biotic and hormonal transcriptome datasets identified 151 genes whose expression was considered relatively stable under all conditions. A sub-set of 12 of these genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR and were seen to be stable under a number of conditions. All except one gene that has been previously proposed as a stably expressed gene for rice, were observed to change significantly under some treatment.\n\nConclusion: A new set of reference genes that are stable across tissue, development, stress and hormonal treatments have been identified in rice.

These data confirm and extend our understanding of the significan

These data confirm and extend our understanding of the significance of the M2 protein for infectious virus particle assembly.”
“We report the case of a patient who developed allergic contact hand dermatitis while receiving infliximab) infusions for psoriasis and psoriatic check details arthritis. Patch testing showed multiple positive allergens. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful patch testing in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockade therapy. TNF-alpha blockers do not necessarily suppress allergic contact hypersensitivity and are not an absolute contraindication to patch testing.”

Hypertrophic scarring following surgical procedures, trauma and especially burns can lead to severe S63845 functional and cosmetic impairment, causing a decrease in the quality of life. Although a wide choice of treatments is offered, few therapeutic methods are universally accepted because of their side effects.\n\nObjective: The effects of the essential

oil (EO) extracted from rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae) in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) are investigated for the first time.\n\nMaterials and methods: Chemical composition of hydrodistilled EO obtained from rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of EO on cell viability, apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-3 in HSFs were investigated.\n\nResults:

The experimental results showed that EO significantly inhibited cell viability, elicited morphological changes and induced apoptosis in HSFs. EO also evidently increased the loss of MMP, the levels of LDH release and cellular ROS production, and the activity of caspase-3.\n\nDiscussion and conclusion: EO-induced apoptosis was at least partially carried out via destruction of the intracellular antioxidant system and elicitation of excessive ROS accumulation in HSFs, which impaired mitochondrial membranes and elicited caspase-3 activation. EO could be an effective cure for human hypertrophic scar.”
“Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ATR activation impact of point spread function (PSF) reconstruction on quantitative values and diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT for nodal staging in non-small cell lung cancer.\n\nPatients and Methods: Fifty-eight consecutive PET/CT examinations were reconstructed with both ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and PSF algorithms. Two readers independently performed a randomized blinded review of PET/CT examinations and gave a nodal status (N0, N1, N2, or N3) to each PET data set. When discordant, a consensus was reached with a third reader.