10-40 0), only 2 as a result of non-liver-related death The rema

10-40.0), only 2 as a result of non-liver-related death. The remaining 49 were alive after a median of 55 months (range, 0.7-69.0). Uni- and multivariable analysis for intervention-free

survival is detailed in Supporting Table 5. The Rotterdam score had an excellent prognostic value, and no further variable could significantly improve its prognostic ability. This validates the Rotterdam score as a useful prognostic tool in this post-therapeutic series of BCS. Supporting Fig. 2 shows survival curves for Rotterdam class I, II, and III. Because the Rotterdam score includes the INR, which could not be RG7204 order calculated in a substantial number of patients (already on oral anticoagulants), we performed a multivariable analysis without including scores or INR. Baseline ascites, bilirubin, and creatinine were independently associated with intervention or death (BCS-intervention-free survival prognostic score [BCIS score]: ascites

[yes = 1, no = 0]*1.675 + ln creatinine [umol/L]*0.613 + ln bilirubin [umol/L]*0.440). This data-driven new score showed an adequate discrimination BAY 80-6946 chemical structure (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.819), but it did not outperform the Rotterdam score (AUC, 0.821)9 (Supporting Fig. 3). The probability of intervention-free survival among different intervals of the BCIS score is shown in Supporting Table 7. Thirty-six patients (23%) died during the study. Median time to death was 10 months (range, 0.1-41.0). Main causes of death are reported in Table 2. Factors associated with mortality are shown in Supporting Table 6. The BCS-TIPS PI score was strongly associated with the risk of death, so that no other variable could improve its predictive capacity. Supporting

Table 8 shows survival among different ranges of BCS-TIPS PI scores. Because this score includes the INR, we performed a multivariable analysis excluding all scores and INR. Age, bilirubin, and creatinine were independently associated these with survival [BCSurvival score: age/10*0.370 + ln creatinine [umol/L]*0.809 + ln bilirubin [umol/L]*0.496). The discriminative capacity was comparable to that of the BCS-TIPS PI score and better than the Rotterdam score (Supporting Fig. 4). BCS is a rare, life-threatening disorder caused by obstruction of hepatic venous outflow. Until recently, most evidence regarding BCS was generated in small retrospective studies of patients diagnosed over long periods and managed using heterogeneous strategies.7, 9, 14 However, an international initiative, funded by the Fifth Framework Program of the European Commission, entitled the EN-Vie, was able to prospectively gather a large multicenter cohort of consecutive patients with BCS diagnosed and treated following homogeneous criteria.4 Previous retrospective studies evaluating prognosis in BCS showed that fatal events occur throughout the first 5 years after diagnosis.

Conclusion: For the previously published criteria, biochemical

Conclusion: For the previously published criteria, biochemical

responses at the sixth month can be used in place of those evaluated after 1 year of UDCA therapy. Our findings justify a more rapid identification of patients who need new therapeutic approaches. (HEPATOLOGY 2013) Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by the presence of highly specific antimitochondrial antibodies and progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, resulting in chronic cholestasis, portal inflammation, and fibrosis, which can ultimately lead to cirrhosis and hepatic failure.1, 2 Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is currently the only approved medical treatment learn more for PBC. Despite improved prognosis Y-27632 research buy in many patients treated with UDCA, the transplant-free survival rate remains significantly lower in patients with a suboptimal biochemical response.3-8 Thus, there is a continued need for new therapeutic options for treating PBC. The biochemical response to UDCA, especially

changes in the serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), may serve as a strong predictor of long-term outcome

in patients with PBC6-10 and thus could have a role in clinical practice and therapeutic trials by identifying patients with a poor prognosis. Previously published criteria for predicting outcome of treatment were mainly based on biochemical response C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) after 1 or 2 years of UDCA therapy.6-9 However, it is helpful to identify as soon as possible patients who will get optimal benefit from alternative therapy. It has been recommended that therapeutic trials should target patients with incomplete biochemical response after 3 to 6 months of UDCA treatment.11 However, a biochemical response as early as 3 to 6 months was evaluated in only a few large independent cohorts of patients, including two studies using the Mayo criteria and Ehime criteria.12, 13 Today, more and more patients are diagnosed at an early stage of PBC. Given the slow disease progression and limited availability of study participants, traditional hard endpoints, such as the occurrence of death or liver transplantation, are considered unfeasible in clinical trials.11 Accordingly, more extended endpoints in homogeneous cohorts of patients are required to define clinically relevant criteria of biochemical response in patients with PBC.

Due to the high cost of auditing, government support is a prerequ

Due to the high cost of auditing, government support is a prerequisite for initiating and maintaining such a process. The selleck compound current survey represents a pilot study to provide insight in the adherence Principles of Care at the national

and local level. Even though some very large centres are included, these of course represent only a minority of all centres in Europe. However, these first results do provide insight into the aspects of the Principles that are more difficult to organize, such as formal paediatric care and physiotherapy. The next step for such a study would be to roll out the questionnaire across Europe, preferably in collaboration with a larger pan-European haemophilia organization that could reach NVP-BKM120 price a wider range of European countries. One result of this survey that stands out is the fact the centralized care is not established for all patients with haemophilia. Although it was not specified in the questionnaire, all respondents noted that all severe haemophilia patients are treated

at a CCC or HTC. In 36% of the 14 countries, moderate and mild patients still do not receive specialized care. This is worrying, as it is becoming increasingly clear that mild and moderate haemophilia patients may show considerable morbidity (including arthropathy and inhibitors) [7, 8], and is well established that lack of centralized care is associated with increased mortality [4]. So this lack of centralization may be one see more of the first topics to target for improvement of care. A crude estimate of the number of centres per 1 million of population shows considerable variation. However, it is not possible to comment on whether this would impact on levels of care. The discrepancies observed between WFH data and the number of centres reported

by the board members may reflect a lack of centralized care, or that the criteria for HTC and CCCs may not have been applied for the WFH listing. Unfortunately, there are no studies describing and/or quantifying the effects of the lack of a physiotherapist, formal paediatric care or absence of 24-h laboratory facilities. As expected, physiotherapists were mostly available in the larger centres. However, clinical experience, especially at times when clotting factors were not readily available, has taught us that physiotherapy is a very important aspect of treatment and it is expected that patients in smaller centres would certainly benefit from an experienced physiotherapist. For formal paediatric care, again, there are no scientific data establishing that a paediatric haematologist provides better haemophilia care. However, it is well established that early start of treatment, and especially prophylaxis, has an enormous impact on outcome in adulthood [2, 9]. In this context, it is also expected that experience is an important driver of the quality of treatment.

39% ± 0 26%) (Fig 1C) In PAR-2 KO mice, CCl4 administration

39% ± 0.26%) (Fig. 1C). In PAR-2 KO mice, CCl4 administration KU-57788 in vitro induced similar fibrosis to that of WT mice at 5 weeks (2.07% ± 0.26%). However, there was no progression of liver fibrosis with continued CCl4 exposure between 5 and 8 weeks in the PAR-2 KO mice (2.09% ± 0.28%). At 8 weeks, there was significantly less

hepatic fibrosis in the PAR-2 KO, compared to WT, mice (P = 0.004) (Fig. 1B,C). Histological assessment of fibrosis correlated closely with other indices of hepatic collagen content in mice given CCl4. At 8 weeks, PAR-2 KO mice showed significantly less induction of procollagen mRNA (1.8- ± 0.23-fold above untreated mice), compared with WT mice (5.9- ± 1.08-fold; P = 0.002) (Fig. 1D). After 5 weeks of CCl4 administration, similar increases in hepatic hydroxyproline were observed in WT and PAR-2 KO mice (0.45 ± 0.02 μg/mg and 0.43 ± 0.009 μg/mg, respectively) (Fig. 1E). However, after 8 weeks, whereas hepatic hydroxyproline content increased significantly in WT mice, there was no increase in PAR-2 KO mice, compared to levels at 5 weeks. PAR-2 KO mice (0.42 ± 0.026) had significantly less hepatic hydroxyproline, compared to WT mice (0.63 ±

0.03) at 8 weeks (P < 0.002). αSMA is a marker of HSC activation and myofibroblast differentiation. In WT mice, hepatic fibrosis induced by the administration of CCl4 was accompanied by a progressive increase in αSMA expression at 8 weeks, compared to untreated mice. PI3K targets In PAR-2 KO mice receiving CCl4, induction of αSMA was Racecadotril similar to WT mice treated with CCl4 at 5 weeks (Fig. 2A), but did not increase further, resulting in significantly less αSMA expression, compared to WT mice at 8 weeks (P = 0.014). CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis was associated with up-regulation of TGFβ mRNA (3.44- ± 0.72-fold greater than control) and protein (9.2 ± 0.9 pg/mg liver, control 6.9 ± 0.19 pg/mg) in WT mice at 8 weeks. In PAR-2 KO mice, TGFβ mRNA up-regulation was significantly

reduced (1.38- ± 0.23-fold of control; P = 0.016, compared to WT) (Fig. 2B), as was TGFβ protein, which was similar to control levels (Fig. 2C). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific tissue inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs), regulate ECM composition and their expression is altered in response to liver injury. In WT mice treated with CCl4 for 8 weeks, both MMP-2 and TIMP-1 mRNA increased, consistent with active ECM remodeling during the development of hepatic fibrosis (Fig. 3A,B). Both MMP-2 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression were significantly reduced in PAR-2 KO mice, compared to WT mice, suggesting that ECM remodeling is reduced in association with the arrest in progression of fibrosis between 5 and 8 weeks in PAR-2 KO mice. The temporal pattern of PAR-1 mRNA expression was examined to investigate the potential mechanisms for the lack of early protection against hepatic fibrosis observed in PAR-2 KO mice.

Tinbergen hypothethized that the birds

needed a certain n

Tinbergen hypothethized that the birds

needed a certain number of chance encounters with novel prey to be able to form a search image for them. Inherent in this idea was the concept that detection of prey represents a sensory ‘problem’, and hence the search image is typically considered only to facilitate prey detection when prey are cryptic (Tinbergen, 1960; Dawkins, 1971; Lawrence & Allen, 1983; Dukas, 2002). It has been demonstrated that the formation of a search image is a result of selective attention after a sequential exposure to a particular stimulus (Croze, 1970; Bond & Riley, 1991; Blough, 1992; Reid & Shettleworth, 1992; Langley, 1996; Bond & Kamil, 1999; Dukas & Kamil, 2001). A predator

forming a search image will focus on certain features of a frequently encountered prey type that enable it to detect the prey more efficiently, but this http://www.selleckchem.com/screening/protease-inhibitor-library.html focus will interfere with the detection of other types of prey that lack the appropriate features (Kamil & Bond, 2006). When the more common prey type becomes rare, ‘perceptual switching’ is predicted to occur (Bond, 2007) as a new search image is formed after a series of consecutive detections of what is now the most abundant prey type. This change in search image is what produces the actual switch in predation levels on different prey types. Apostatic selection has primarily been studied in the context of p38 MAPK cancer colour polymorphisms in invertebrates, where the main agent of selection has been assumed to be predation by birds. The fact that birds are easily trained to perform specific tasks in experimental conditions, and that they prey upon colour-polymorphic invertebrates with low mobility (e.g. snails), facilitates the study of patterns that are consistent Farnesyltransferase with apostatic selection. In order to demonstrate that apostatic selection occurs, and is capable of maintaining balanced polymorphisms, it is

first necessary to establish that predators that feed on polymorphic prey show perceptual switching. This has been demonstrated in laboratory free-choice experiments such as the one carried out by Bond (1983), in which he presented different types of grain on two kinds of background where they were either cryptic or conspicuous to pigeons. The pigeons showed a preference for the more common grain on the cryptic background. The effect was lost when the grains were conspicuous. The response rate was reduced as the relative proportions of grain types became equal, which Bond explained could indicate a decrease in searching efficiency owing to repeated switching from one grain type to another. Other laboratory free-choice experiments have supported the occurrence of perceptual switching (Cooper, 1984; Tucker, 1991; Reid & Shettleworth, 1992; Cooper & Allen, 1994).

Two male and two female newts were positioned in a commercial pla

Two male and two female newts were positioned in a commercial plastic box and recorded

in a relaxed position, and after stimulation. The animals were exposed for 0.56–0.8 ms at 50–65 kV with a film focus distance of 60 cm. Selleck Doxorubicin The animals showed two types of antipredator posturings: a flattened body or an arched body (see Figs 1b and 2b). For rib angle measurements, only the flattened antipredator posturing was considered because the dorsal flexion of the vertebral column in the arched posturing could distort the results. The changes in the angle between the longitudinal axis of the rib and the longitudinal axis of the vertebral body before and after the ‘predator-like stimulus’ were measured. As a reference for the measurements, the imaginary line connecting the distal tip of the rib to the dorsal costo-vertebral joint,

and the neural spine of the associated vertebra were used. Ten angles on both sides were measured twice (measures A and B) before and after the stimulus on three different individuals; another unrepeated measure (only measure A) was taken on a fourth individual. The resulting dataset consisted of 280 angles and involved four variables: stimulus (relaxed vs. stimulated), side (right vs. left), measure (A vs. B) and individual (1–4). To test which variables influenced the mean angles, buy Vismodegib nonparametric tests were performed for each of the four variables. Regarding the three dichotomous variables stimulus, side and measure, exact Wilcoxon’s paired rank tests were performed to compare the dependent (paired) data groups. Regarding the four individuals, a Kruskal–Wallis test for comparison of more than two independent Buspirone HCl groups of data was performed.

The trunk of one preserved male newt was scanned using CT. For CT, the Sub-μm-device Nanotom (Phönix|x-ray, Wunstorf, Germany) was used. During measurement, projection images were grabbed using an amorphous Silicon matrix detector at several angular positions. After a full 360° rotation, 1500 images were generated. A mathematical algorithm calculated a 3D dataset using the projection images. Grey values corresponding to the tissue density were assigned to each spatial element (voxel). The size of each voxel was 6 μm3. Surface and volume reconstructions were performed using Amira 4.1 (Mercury Computer Systems, Chelmsford, MA, USA) software. For histological investigations, two adult newts (one male and one female) were stimulated as described above until they pierced their ribs during immobile posturing. While remaining in the immobile position, the animals were anaesthetized by immersing them into dissolved MS222 (0.01%), after which they were decapitated and immediately immersed in buffered (pH=7.2) 4% formalin for 10 days.

25 Probes were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ampli

25 Probes were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from complementary DNA (cDNA) generated from 5-dpf RNA with the primers listed in Supporting Table 1. The bip probe was generated by the creation of cDNA with the zbip-3a primer. Nucleotides 1235 to 2260 of BC063946.1 were amplified with primers bip-5b and bip-3b. The DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (chop) probe was amplified with primers zchop-5c and zchop-3, which Ivacaftor spanned nucleotides 248 to 976 of NM_001082825.1.

The dnajc3 probe was amplified with primers zdnajc3-5p and zdnajc3-3p, which spanned nucleotides 318 to 819 of NM_199610. Each fragment was cloned into PCR II (Invitrogen) and was sequenced. The probes were created with a digoxigenin RNA labeling mix (Roche).

Whole-mount in situ hybridizations were performed as described.24 Larvae at 5 dpf were homogenized in a lysis buffer [20 mM trishydroxymethylaminomethane (pH 7.5), 150 mM sodium chloride, 1% Nonidet P40, 2 mM ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, 10% glycerol, and protease inhibitors]; to a final concentration of 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 5% 2-mercaptoethanol. Two embryos were loaded onto a 10% polyacrylamide gel, blotted onto nitrocellulose, and incubated with antibodies recognizing α-tubulin (1:2000; Sigma), Bip (1:3000; Sigma) or phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1α (p-Eif2s1; 1:1000; 9721, Cell Signaling) over followed

by anti-mouse horseradish peroxidase–conjugated secondary antibody (1:1500; Jackson ImmunoResearch). Blots were visualized by chemiluminescence with a Fujifilm LAS-3000. The band intensities were quantified with Quantity One software (Bio-Rad). RNA was isolated from 5-dpf whole larvae, dissected livers, and liverless carcasses with the Qiagen RNeasy kit. cDNA was synthesized with Superscript II reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen). PCR reactions were performed as described.25 Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in triplicate with Roche SYBR Green on the Roche LightCycler 480 system. The change in the cycle threshold (ΔCt) was calculated for each target gene using the formula (2) with ribosomal protein P0 (rpp0) as the reference. The primer specificity (Supporting Table 1) was determined with a melting curve assessment; some amplicons were sequenced. All genes are referred to according to the nomenclature rules for the species under discussion. When no species is specified, zebrafish nomenclature rules are followed. All experiments were repeated for at least three clutches. For data presented as percentages of control values, we calculated either the average or the median and the standard deviation. The statistical tests included unpaired and paired two-tailed Student t tests, one-sample t tests, analyses of variance (ANOVAs), Fisher’s exact test, and chi-square analyses as appropriate.

0%, non-SVR 754%, 5-years survival rate: SVR 1000%, non-SVR 53

0%, non-SVR 75.4%, 5-years survival rate: SVR 100.0%, non-SVR 53.8%). Rapid virological response (RVR) and Complete early virological response (cEVR) were obtained in 5.9% (3/51 therapy sessions) and 13.7% (7/51) of patients treated with PEG-IFN/R. On the other hand, RVR rate was 100.0% (4/4) with PEG-IFN/R plus teraprevir and 100.0% (8/8) with

PEG-IFN/R plus simeprevir, and cEVR rate was 100.0% (4/4) with PEG-IFN/R plus teraprevir and 80.0% (4/5) with PEG-IFN/R plus simeprevir. Conclusion The achievement of SVR by PEG-IFN/R therapy in HCV-related LDLT patients bring good prognosis after LDLT and the PEG-IFN/R plus protease inhibitor indicate strong anti-viral effect compared with PEG-IFN/R. It is expected that PEG-IFN/R plus protease inhibitor improve the prognosis of HCV-related LDLT patients. Disclosures: The following people have

nothing www.selleckchem.com/products/LY294002.html C59 wnt cost to disclose: Satoshi Miuma, Tatsuki Ichikawa, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Naota Taura, Kazuhiko Nakao Background: Recurrent HCV is universal after liver transplant (OLT) and progression to cirrhosis is rapid. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH) is a rare form of HCV recurrence associated with graft failure/death and its treatment with pegylated interferon is rarely successful and difficult to tolerate. Aims: To describe the use of an IFN-free regimen in severe recurrent hepatitis C post-OLT. Methods: One retransplant (A) and 5 primary OLT recipients (B-F) were treated: 3 with FCH(A-C), 1 with decompensated recurrent cirrhosis (D), 1 with acute lobular hepatitis (E), 1 with cholestatic lobular hepatitis. Sofos-buvir (SOF) 400 mg/day, plus Daclatasvir (DCV) 60 mg/day, were co-administered for 24 wks. Patient C also received a lead-in with peg-IFN plus ribavirin (RBV) and RBV was continued for an additional 24 wks. Pt E received one month of SOF/RBV prior to initiating SOF/DCV. Pre-treatment MELD scores ranged selleck 12-19. All had G1a. Results: Interim analysis (see table): Within 2 wks of initiating treatment with SOF/ DCV serum HCV RNA levels fell dramatically.

Within 4 wks, hyperbilirubinemia improved and liver enzymes normalized. Blood levels of tacrolimus remained stable and therapy was well tolerated. Conclusion: The rapid suppression of HCV with novel oral antiviral regimens post-OLT, reverses the changes of FCH and liver decompensation and provides great promise for severe recurrent HCV. HCV Viral Loads During Treatment * qualitative HCV RNA positive; **qualitative HCV RNA negative; NYD=not yet done Disclosures: Natalie H. Bzowej – Grant/Research Support: Gilead Sciences, Ocera Therapeutics Shobha Joshi – Grant/Research Support: Salix, Eisai; Speaking and Teaching: Merck, Gilead, Bristol-Myers Squibb George Therapondos – Grant/Research Support: Gilead, Biotest Nigel Girgrah – Speaking and Teaching: Merck, Bayer, Vertex, Gilead, Merck, Bayer, Vertex, Gilead, Merck, Bayer, Vertex, Gilead, Merck, Bayer, Vertex, Gilead Jennifer B.

In total, 24,871 participants from NHANES were included: 14,886 (

In total, 24,871 participants from NHANES were included: 14,886 (1999-2004) and 9,985 (2005-2008). Of these individuals, 14.0% had CLD and 8.6% had diabetes. During the study period, HepA vaccination in CLD increased from 13.3% ± 1.0% to 20.0% ± 1.5%, HepB vaccination increased from 23.4% ± 1.2% to 32.1% ± 1.5%. Of subtypes of CLD, HepA vaccination rates increased only in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas HepB vaccination increased for patients with hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the diabetic cohort, HepA

vaccination rates increased from 9.3% ± 1.1% to 15.4% ± 1.7% and HepB rates increased from 15.2% ± 1.5% to 22.4% ± Ixazomib datasheet 1.7%. All changes were similar to those observed in the general population. The quality measure (QM) for HepA in the general population decreased from 44.4% ± 1.2% in 1999-2004 to 41.7% ± 1.9% in 2005-2008, and similar changes were noted for all subcohorts. On the other hand, QM for HepB increased from 31.7% ± 0.9% to 40.7% ± 1.0% in the population, whereas no changes in QM were noted in any diagnostic cohort except for NAFLD. Conclusions: Although vaccination Roscovitine chemical structure rates in CLD and diabetic cohorts are increasing, they remain low. Given the public health implications of acute hepatitis A and hepatitis

B in patients with CLD, better implementation of the vaccination recommendations for these populations is warranted. (HEPATOLOGY

2011) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that liver disease is currently the 12th leading cause of death in the United States.1 Liver-related mortality usually results from complications of chronic liver disease, including advanced cirrhosis and hepatocelllar carcinoma (HCC). Despite a recent decline in many other cancers, the incidence of HCC continues to increase, especially in men.2-4 Furthermore, chronic liver disease (CLD) and related complications are associated with increased mortality, severely impaired quality of life, and substantial selleck chemicals resource utilization.5-8 Despite a decline in the incidence of hepatitis C, other liver diseases, such as diabetes and obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are increasing.9-11 Increasing evidence suggests that patients with preexisting CLD are at risk for a severe liver disease after acute infection with hepatitis A and/or hepatitis B viruses.12-15 This superinfection in patients with preexisting CLD may have a rapidly progressive course, leading to liver failure and death.16, 17 Additionally, severe acute hepatitis B infection has also been reported in patients with type II diabetes (diabetes mellitus [DM]).18 Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in patients with DM, many diabetics may have underlying CLD related to NAFLD.

Treatment was well tolerated Most adverse events were mild in se

Treatment was well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild in severity and considered unrelated to TDF. No subject had confirmed 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine, or creatinine clearance <50 mL/min. Conclusions: TDF is effective and well-tolerated in Asian-American CHB patients in a real-life setting, consistent with larger registration trials except HBsAg loss occurred in a small percentage of Asian-American NVP-BGJ398 in vivo patients. Improvement in liver fibrosis was seen in a proportion of patients

at week 48. No genotypic resistance to antiviral drug was developed up to week 1 44. Disclosures: Calvin Pan – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: BMS, Gilead; Consulting: BMS, Gilead; Grant/Research Support: BMS, Gilead, Genentech; Speaking and Teaching: BMS, Gilead, Genentech, Onyx, Vertex Ho Bae – Grant/Research Support: Gilead; Speaking

and Teaching: Gilead, BMS, Genentech Huy N. Trinh – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: BMS, Gilead; Grant/Research Support: BMS, Gilead; Speaking and Teaching: BMS, Gilead, vertex; Stock Shareholder: Gilead Xiaoli Ma – Consulting: Gilead Sciemces, Inc, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Inc Truong-Sinh YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 in vitro Leduc – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: Gilead, BMS; Grant/Research Support: Gilead; Speaking and Teaching: Gilead, BMS, Merck, Vertex Ke-Qin Hu – Grant/Research Support: BMS, Gilead, Merck, Vertex, Genentech; Speaking and Teaching: BMS, Gilead, Merck, Vertex, Genentech The following people have nothing to disclose: Zheng Zeng, Li-Jun Mi, Sing Chan Background:

Serum HBsAg is a useful tool to describe the natural course and antiviral response in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients especially when HBV DNA has become undetectable due to effective treatment. We assessed the predictive use of quantitative HBV serum markers in the LDT600A2410 Roadmap study with telbivudine (LDT) monotherapy and teno-fovir (TDF) add-on. Methods / selleck compound Patients: mITT population was 100 HBeAg-positive CHB patients. Quantitative HBsAg/HBeAg from screening, W24, W52, W76 and W1 04/EoT was correlated with serological (HBe/sAg loss), combined (normal ALT, undetectable HBV-DNA) and complete (normal ALT, undetectable HBV-DNA, HBeAg loss) EoT response. Off treatment follow-up data up to two years was available from 6/7 patients with HBsAg loss. Results: W24 predictive factors for combined (n=82) and complete (n=45) W104/EoT response were W24 HBeAg <10 PEIU/L (n=54, positive predictive value, PPV 85% and 67%, negative predictive value, NPV 22% and 76%) and undetectable HBV DNA (PPV 87% and 64%, NPV 24% and 73%). HBeAg <10 PEIU/L showed a higher AUC (0.7908) and lower p-value (p<0.0001) for the prediction of complete response compared to undetectable HBV DNA at W24 (0.6979, p=0.0007). ROC curves for HBV DNA negativity and for HBeAg <10 PEIU/L did not differ significantly (p=0.095).